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Objective

To determine the clinical outcome of horses treated for infection of the intertubercular bursa (infectious bicipital bursitis).

Design

Retrospective analysis of case records.

Animals

Four horses referred for treatment of infectious bicipital bursitis.

Procedure

Medical records of horses that were severely lame on admission were reviewed.

Results

In 3 horses, palpation over the bicipital bursa as well as flexion and extension of the scapulohumeral joint were resented. Ultrasonography performed in 1 horse revealed that the bicipital bursa was large and that excessive amounts of fluid containing hyperechoic material were evident within the bicipital bursa. Two horses were treated by the administration of antimicrobial and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Both remained lame and failed to resume their former activity. Two horses additionally were treated surgically by means of a partial synovectomy. Both resumed their former activity although a subtle lameness remained in 1 horse.

Clinical Implications

Partial synovectomy may be useful in the treatment of horses with infectious bicipital bursitis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:1434-1437)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether seasonal variations exist in endogenous plasma ACTH, plasma α-melanocyte—stimulating hormone (α-MSH), serum cortisol, and serum insulin concentrations and in the results of a dexamethasone suppression test for older, clinically normal geldings in Alabama.

Design—Cohort study.

Animals—15 healthy mixed-breed geldings (median age, 14 years).

Procedures—Sample collection was repeated monthly for 12 months. Dexamethasone (0.04 mg/kg [0.02 mg/lb], IM) was administered and cortisol concentrations were determined at 15 and 19 hours. Radioimmunoassays were used to measure ACTH, α-MSH, cortisol, and insulin concentrations at each testing time. Hormone concentrations were compared between months via repeated-measures ANOVA and correlated with age within each month.

Results—A significant time effect was found between months for α-MSH and insulin concentrations. Endogenous cortisol and ACTH concentrations remained within existing reference ranges. Significant correlations were detected between age and ACTH concentration for several fall and winter months and between age and insulin concentration for September.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Older horses have higher ACTH concentrations in several fall and winter months and higher insulin concentrations in September than do younger horses. Seasonally specific reference ranges are required for α-MSH and insulin concentrations, with significantly higher concentrations detected in the fall. Practitioners should be advised to submit samples only to local laboratories that can provide such reference ranges for their local geographic region.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Two distinct monoclonal antibodies (mab) were prepared for testing with kidney, spleen, and retrobulae tissue imprints made from chinook salmon (Oncorhnchus tshawytscha) affected with plasmacytoid leukemia. (pl). Hybridomas were prepared from mice immunized with whole and lysed cells purified from renal or retrobular pl-positive tissues, which had been obtained from naturally and experimentally infected fish from British Columbia, Canada. The mab reacted with at least 4 morphologically different cell types; of fluorescence was associated with the plasma membrane and cytoplasm. The mab also reacted with kidney imprints made from chinook salmon affected with a pl-like lymphoproliferative disease in California, indicating that these 2 diseases might be caused by a similar agent. The mab did not react with any of the kidney or spleen imprints made from wild chinook salmon collected from a river in Ontario, Canada

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To use lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to create synovitis in the midcarpal joint of ponies, and to assess the morphologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical effects of synovitis on articular cartilage of the third carpal bone.

Animals

2- to 3-year-old ponies, 6 control (group 1) and 6 treated (group 2).

Procedure

Synovitis was induced in 1 midcarpal joint of group-2 ponies by intra-articular injections of LPS (0.02 μg/kg of body weight), morphine (0.1 mg/kg), and saline solution (group 2a) and morphine and saline solution alone in the contralateral midcarpal joint (group 2b). Articular cartilage sections and attached synovial membrane from the third carpal bones were examined by immunohistochemical distribution of interleukin 1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TNF receptors (P55, P75) and 3-B-3(–) epitopes, and by localization of proteoglycans (metachromatic staining). Proteoglycan extracts were assessed by metachromatic staining or western blotting and immunohistochemical staining, using anti-3-B-3 antibodies.

Results

Enhanced immunoreactivity for the cytokines and receptors was found in inflamed synovial membrane and noncalcified cartilage (group 2a more than 2b). Metachromasia of the noncalcified cartilage was greater in group-1 than in group-2a and group-2b specimens. In group 2a, chondrocyte hypertrophy and enhanced immunoreactivity for 3-B-3(–) epitope in areas of increased cytokine immunoreactivity suggested possible phenotypic change of the chondrocytes in response to synovitis. Immunohistochemical analysis by western blotting of proteoglycan extracts indicated strong 3-B-3(–) epitope immunolocalization in group-2a, weaker staining in group-2b, and barely detectable stain in group-1 specimens, which correlated with in situ immunolocalization.

Conclusions

Intra-articular administration of LPS may be used to induce a synovial environment conducive to increased immunoreactivity of interleukin 1β, TNF-α, and its receptors in equine synovial membrane and articular cartilage. These cytokines may be involved in the early phenotypic change of chondrocytes that is believed to occur in osteoarthritis and is characterized in this study by enhanced 3-B-3(–) epitope immunoreactivity and chondrocyte hypertrophy. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1080–1093)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objectives

To ascertain the effects of dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids on biochemical and histopathologic components of the inflammatory stage of wound healing.

Animals

30 purpose-bred Beagles.

Procedure

Dogs were allotted to 5 groups of 6. Each group was fed a unique dietary fatty acid ratio of omega-6 to n-3—diet A, 5.3:1; diet B, 10.4:1; diet C, 24.1:1; diet D, 51.6:1; and diet E, 95.8:1. Dogs were fed once daily for 12 weeks, then biopsy specimens were taken from 4-day-old wounds of each dog and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for: prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) metabolites, and ratios of omega-6 to n-3 fatty acids, arachidonic acid (AA) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), adrenic acid to docosahexaenoic acid, and PGE2 to prostaglandin E3 (PGE3) metabolites.

Results

Qualitative analysis was carried out on AA, EPA, adrenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and the major metabolite from the PGE2 and PGE3 pathway. These molecules were further quantified with respect to diet to determine significant differences. By analysis of the AA-to-EPA ratio, diet A was different from diets D and E and diets B and C were different from diet E (P < 0.05). By analysis of the PGE2-to-PGE3 metabolite ratio, diet A was different from diet E (P < 0.05). Though biochemical analysis indicated dietary dependence, histopathologic data indicated no significant difference with respect to diet groups.

Conclusion

The biochemical component of the inflammatory stage of wound healing can be manipulated by diet.

Clinical Relevance

Omega-3 fatty acid-enriched diets can be used to control inflammation associated with dermatologic conditions. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:859–863)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the time course of circulating neutrophil priming and activity in dogs with spinal cord injury secondary to intervertebral disk herniation that undergo decompressive surgery.

ANIMALS

9 dogs with spinal cord injury and 9 healthy dogs (controls).

PROCEDURES

For dogs with spinal cord injury, blood samples were collected on the day of hospital admission and 3, 7, 30, and 90 days after injury and decompressive surgery. A single blood sample was collected from the control dogs. Flow cytometry analysis was performed on isolated neutrophils incubated with antibody against CD11b and nonfluorescent dihydrorhodamine 123, which was converted to fluorescent rhodamine 123 to measure oxidative burst activity.

RESULTS

Expression of CD11b was increased in dogs with spinal cord injury 3 days after injury and decompressive surgery, relative to day 7 expression. Neutrophils expressed high oxidative burst activity both 3 and 7 days after injury and decompressive surgery, compared with activity in healthy dogs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

For dogs with spinal cord injury, high CD11b expression 3 days after injury and decompressive surgery was consistent with findings for rodents with experimentally induced spinal cord injury. However, the high oxidative burst activity 3 and 7 days after injury and decompressive surgery was not consistent with data from other species, and additional studies on inflammatory events in dogs with naturally occurring spinal cord injury are needed.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Recent state and federal legislative actions and current recommendations from the World Health Organization seem to suggest that, when it comes to antimicrobial stewardship, use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease can be ranked in order of appropriateness, which in turn has led, in some instances, to attempts to limit or specifically oppose the routine use of medically important antimicrobials for prevention of disease. In contrast, the AVMA Committee on Antimicrobials believes that attempts to evaluate the degree of antimicrobial stewardship on the basis of therapeutic intent are misguided and that use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease may comply with the principles of antimicrobial stewardship. It is important that veterinarians and animal caretakers are clear about the reason they may be administering antimicrobials to animals in their care. Concise definitions of prevention, control, and treatment of individuals and populations are necessary to avoid confusion and to help veterinarians clearly communicate their intentions when prescribing or recommending antimicrobial use.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association