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  • Author or Editor: J. M. Angles x
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SUMMARY

Sonographic and/or anatomic observations were made of the spleen in 27 dogs. Anatomic studies were used to establish precise correlations between the gross anatomic features of the organ and its ultrasonographic image. In 8 anesthetized dogs, ultrasonographic images of the spleen were made in dorsal, transverse, and sagittal planes. When it was incident to the ultrasonic beam, the splenic capsule was represented by a fine echogenic line that defined the boundaries of the organ. The splenic substance had a uniformly mottled echogenicity apart from the anechoic lumen of the splenic venous rami, which were detected at and near the hilus of the spleen. Less regularly, splenic arterial rami were detected at the hilus, but not within the splenic substance. Dorsal and transverse images were made with the ultrasonic transducer perpendicular to the left thoracic and abdominal wall at the 11th intercostal space and caudoventrad to it. Sagittal images were produced with the transducer's face directed craniad, placed parallel to the left lateral abdominal wall, and pushed under the costal arch. The adoption of such an ultrasonographic imaging protocol ensures that all of the spleen is inspected. A definitive opinion can then be given as to whether the spleen is normal or abnormal. Pathologic changes in the spleen must also be differentiated from changes in adjacent organs or structures.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether long-distance endurance exercise in sled dogs causes increases in serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and whether such increases are correlated with other markers of the exercise-induced acute-phase response

Animals—25 sled dogs.

Procedures—Serum was obtained from 25 sled dogs approximately 48 hours before and immediately after completing a race of 557 km. Serum was analyzed to determine concentrations of CRP and interleukin (IL)-6, and serum biochemical analysis (and iron homeostasis analysis) also was performed.

Results—CRP concentrations increased significantly from a mean ± SD concentration of 22.4 ± 16.3 μg/mL before racing to a mean of 263.3 ± 103.8 μg/mL immediately after racing Serum IL-6 concentrations were unchanged; however, there was a modest but significant correlation (r = 0.50) between the increase in CRP concentration and an overall decrease in serum albumin concentration, which suggested an inverse relationship between hepatic synthesis of the 2 proteins. Differences in CRP concentrations among teams of dogs revealed that concentrations before racing may be influenced by previous episodes of exercise. Serum iron concentration had only a mild decrease, which may have been attributable to iron-rich diets consumed by the dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CRP concentrations may serve as a potential marker for exercise-induced inflammation. The exact amount of exercise required to induce such a response is unknown, but dogs apparently have a more robust acute-phase response than do humans. Clinical evaluation of CRP concentrations must account for physical activity when those concentrations are used as a potential marker for systemic inflammation. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1207-1213)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Thirty healthy male horses were allotted to 3 groups and treated blindly during 4 days. Group-1 horses received unfractioned calcium heparin (100 IU/kg of body weight, sc, q 12 h). Group-2 horses received a single dose of a low-molecular-weight heparin (50 anti-Xa IU/kg, sc) every morning, and a similar volume of saline solution every evening. Group-3 horses received the vehicle (saline solution), sc, every 12 hours. Citrated and edta-anticoagulated blood samples were collected before starting the medication (T-0) and once daily 3 hours after each morning injection (T-3, T-27, T-51, and T-75). The pcv, hemoglobin concentration, rbc and platelet counts, and clotting times (activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time) were determined, and a microscopic examination to detect hemagglutination was performed. Plasma concentration of heparin was measured by use of the antifactor Xa activity assay. Bleeding time was determined on the first and fourth days, using a double-template method.

The horses given unfractioned heparin had marked agglutination of erythrocytes after the first injection that became more pronounced as treatment progressed. Also, significant decrease in pcv, hemoglobin concentration, and rbc count was observed during treatment. Platelet count was significantly decreased after the first day, and clotting times were significantly prolonged. In contrast to the horses given unfractioned heparin, those given low-molecular-weight heparin did not have any agglutination of erythrocytes during the 4 days of treatment, and there were no significant changes in pcv, hemoglobin concentration, or rbc and platelet counts. Activated partial thromboplastin time increased slightly in the horses given low-molecular-weight heparin, although the values remained within reference range. Both groups of horses achieved adequate concentrations of heparin in plasma for prophylactic purposes, but those given low-molecular-weight heparin achieved those values after the first injection. Bleeding times were not significantly different between heparin-treated horses and horses given saline solution during treatment.

We conclude that low-molecular-weight heparin may be used more safely and conveniently in horses, because it does not affect equine erythrocytes, platelets, or clotting and bleeding times.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research