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Summary

Nine adult female sheep were each surgically fitted with an Ivan and Johnston reentrant cannula in the cranial part of the duodenum just distal to the pylorus. By diversion (loss) of abomasal outflow, this model has been shown to consistently induce hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, accompanied by hyponatremia and dehydration. Each sheep was subjected to 3 treatment trials, each preceded by a 24-hour prediversion period, and a diversion period during which a syndrome of hypochloremia (68 ± 2 mEq/L), hypokalemia, hyponatremia, and metabolic alkalosis was induced.

Development of this syndrome was attributable to losses of large amounts of acid and electrolytes in the abomasal effluent. Mean total electrolyte contents of the effluent were: Cl, 650 ± 27 mEq; Na+, 388 ± 23 mEq; and K+, 123 ± 12 mEq, with total volume loss ranging from 3.6 to 10.0 L of gastric contents and pH ranging from 3 to 5. Decreases in plasma electrolyte concentrations also can be attributed to decreased intake, because anorexia developed shortly after the onset of diversion. Electrolyte losses in urine during diversion were minimal for Cl (mean ± sem, 12.0 ± 5.1 mEq), but were greater for Na+ (124.2 ± 14.5 mEq) and K+ (185.1 ± 31.2 mEq).

Treatments consisted of 0.9% NaCl (300 mosm/L), 3.6% NaCl (1,200 mosm/L), and 7.2% NaCl (2,400 mosm/L) administered over a 2-hour period, with the administered volume determined by the estimated total extracellular fluid Cl deficit. Significant difference was not found among treatments, with all solutions resulting in return of clinicopathologic and physical variables to prediversion values within 12 hours of treatment. We concluded that rapid iv replacement of Cl, with small volumes of hypertonic saline solution, is safe and effective for correction of experimentally induced hypochloremic, hypokalemic, metabolic alkalosis in sheep.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether an alteration in calcium regulation by skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum, similar to known defects that cause malignant hyperthermia (MH), could be identified in membrane vesicles isolated from the muscles of Thoroughbreds with recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (RER).

Sample Population—Muscle biopsy specimens from 6 Thoroughbreds with RER and 6 healthy (control) horses.

Procedures—RER was diagnosed on the basis of a history of > 3 episodes of exertional rhabdomyolysis confirmed by increases in serum creatine kinase (CK) activity. Skeletal muscle membrane vesicles, prepared by differential centrifugation of muscle tissue homogenates obtained from the horses, were characterized for sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) activities, including the Ca2+ release rate for the ryanodine receptor-Ca2+ release channel, [3H]ryanodine binding activities, and rate of SR Ca2+-ATPase activity and its activation by Ca2+.

Results—Time course of SR Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release and [3H]ryanodine binding to the ryanodine receptor after incubation with varying concentrations of ryanodine, caffeine, and ionized calcium did not differ between muscle membranes obtained from control and RER horses. Furthermore, the maximal rate of SR Ca2+-ATPase activity and its affinity for Ca2+ did not differ between muscle membranes from control horses and horses with RER.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Despite clinical and physiologic similarities between RER and MH, we concluded that RER in Thoroughbreds does not resemble the SR ryanodine receptor defect responsible for MH and may represent a novel defect in muscle excitation-contraction coupling, calcium regulation, or contractility. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:242–247)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the potential of adipose-derived nucleated cell (ADNC) fractions to improve tendon repair in horses with collagenase-induced tendinitis.

Animals—8 horses.

Procedures—Collagenase was used to induce tendinitis in the superficial digital flexor tendon of 1 forelimb in each horse. Four horses were treated by injection of autogenous ADNC fractions, and 4 control horses were injected with PBS solution. Healing was compared by weekly ultrasonographic evaluation. Horses were euthanatized at 6 weeks. Gross and histologic evaluation of tendon structure, fiber alignment, and collagen typing were used to define tendon architecture. Biochemical and molecular analyses of collagen, DNA, and proteoglycan and gene expression of collagen type I and type III, decorin, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), and insulin-like growth factor-I were performed.

Results—Ultrasonography revealed no difference in rate or quality of repair between groups. Histologic evaluation revealed a significant improvement in tendon fiber architecture; reductions in vascularity, inflammatory cell infiltrate, and collagen type III formation; and improvements in tendon fiber density and alignment in ADNC-treated tendons. Repair sites did not differ in DNA, proteoglycan, or total collagen content. Gene expression of collagen type I and type III in treated and control tendons were similar. Gene expression of COMP was significantly increased in ADNC-injected tendons.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—ADNC injection improved tendon organization in treated tendons. Although biochemical and molecular differences were less profound, tendons appeared architecturally improved after ADNC injection, which was corroborated by improved tendon COMP expression. Use of ADNC in horses with tendinitis appears warranted.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of cyclophotocoagulation via administration of 100 J with a neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser on corneal touch threshold (CTT), intraocular pressure (IOP), aqueous tear production, and corneal nerve morphology in eyes of dogs.

Animals—15 dogs.

Procedure—Noncontact Nd:YAG laser was transsclerally applied (10 applications; 25 W for 0.1 seconds for each application to each of 4 quadrants) to the ciliary body of the left eye of 15 dogs; the right eye was the control eye. Corneal integrity, CTT, tear production as measured by the Schirmer tear test (STT), and IOP were evaluated for 14 days following laser treatment. On day 14, dogs were euthanatized, eyes harvested, and corneas stained with gold chloride. Major nerve bundles were analyzed by use of a drawing tube attached to a light microscope, and maximum diameters were measured by use of image analysis software.

Results—All laser-treated eyes had significantly higher CTT values, compared with control eyes. Six of 15 laser-treated eyes developed ulcerative keratitis. On most days, IOP was significantly lower in laser-treated eyes in both morning and evening. Laser-treated eyes had a significant decrease of approximately 1 nerve bundle/corneal quadrant. Values for STT or nerve bundle diameters did not differ significantly.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Administration of 100 J with a Nd:YAG laser effectively reduced IOP while increasing CTT and caused a significant decrease in number, but not diameter, of major corneal nerve bundles. Nerve damage and corneal hypoesthesia are etiologic factors in ulcerative keratitis following Nd:YAG cyclophotocoagulation. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:906–915)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 15-year-old sexually intact female ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) was evaluated for a heart murmur and progressive radiographic cardiomegaly.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

The lemur was clinically normal at the time of initial evaluation. Results of transthoracic echocardiography performed when the animal was anesthetized indicated mitral valve stenosis and severe left atrial dilation. Three months later, signs of left-sided congestive heart failure (CHF; coughing, exercise intolerance, and tachypnea) were observed and confirmed by the presence of radiographic pulmonary edema.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Medical treatment that consisted of aspirin, benazepril, furosemide, pimobendan, spironolactone, and ultimately torsemide in lieu of furosemide successfully controlled the lemur's clinical signs for 33 months after the development of CHF. Euthanasia was then elected on the basis of perceived poor quality of life because tachypnea became refractory to progressively higher dosages of diuretic. Necropsy confirmed mitral stenosis with severe left atrial dilation and chronic pulmonary congestion.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The present report described the long-term medical management of CHF secondary to mitral stenosis in a lemur. Mitral stenosis was suspected to be a congenital defect, similar to the cause of mitral stenosis reported for dogs and cats, rather than to be an acquired change in association with rheumatic heart disease as commonly occurs for people. The lemur's CHF was well managed for 33 months with treatment, including pimobendan, which was well tolerated.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate mechanisms by which anti-inflammatory doses of orally administered intermediate-acting glucocorticoids (prednisone) could predispose dogs to progression of heart disease or congestive heart failure.

ANIMALS 11 client-owned dogs with allergic dermatitis and 11 matched healthy control dogs.

PROCEDURES Clinicopathologic, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic variables were measured. Dogs with allergic dermatitis then received prednisone (1 mg/kg, PO) once daily for 14 consecutive days beginning on day 0 (baseline), followed by a tapering and washout period; control dogs received no treatment. Measurements were repeated on days 7, 14, and 35. Linear mixed modeling was used to compare changes in variables across measurement points and between dog groups.

RESULTS Prednisone administration caused no significant changes in serum sodium or potassium concentration, blood glucose concentration, or target echocardiographic variables. The change from baseline in systolic arterial blood pressure at day 7 was significantly greater in prednisone-treated dogs than in control dogs. Expected changes in hematologic and serum biochemical values with prednisone administration (neutrophilia, eosinopenia, isosthenuria, and high serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase activities) also occurred in the prednisone-treated dogs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that anti-inflammatory doses of orally administered glucocorticoids have the potential to adversely impact cardiac function in dogs by causing an increase in blood pressure and thus increased cardiac afterload.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the clinicopathologic, hemodynamic, and echocardiographic effects of short-term administration of anti-inflammatory dosages of prednisolone to systemically normal cats.

ANIMALS

10 cats with allergic dermatitis and 10 healthy control cats.

PROCEDURES

Cats with allergic dermatitis were randomly allocated to 2 groups and received 2 dosages of prednisolone (1 and 2 mg/kg/d, PO, for 7 days) in a crossover design followed by 9-day tapering and 14-day washout periods. Each prednisolone-treated cat was matched to a healthy control cat on the basis of sex, neuter status, age (± 1 year), and body weight (± 10%). Control cats received no treatment during the 35-day observation period. Clinicopathologic, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic variables were measured at baseline (day 0) and predetermined times during and after prednisolone administration and compared within and between the 2 treatment groups.

RESULTS

Prednisolone-treated cats had expected clinicopathologic alterations (mild increases in neutrophil and monocyte counts and serum concentrations of albumin, cholesterol, and triglycerides) but systolic arterial blood pressure; blood glucose, serum potassium, and cardiac biomarker concentrations; urinary sodium excretion; and echocardiographic variables did not differ significantly from baseline at any time. Statistically significant, albeit clinically irrelevant, increases in blood glucose and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations were observed between baseline and the prednisolone pharmacokinetic steady state (7 days after initiation) only when the 2-mg/kg dosage was administered.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated short-term oral administration of anti-inflammatory dosages of prednisolone did not cause relevant hemodynamic, echocardiographic, or diabetogenic effects in systemically normal cats with allergic dermatitis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To optimize the overall hemostasis potential (OHP) assay for use with canine platelet-poor plasma and determine reference intervals in healthy dogs.

Animals—40 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Blood was collected from the dogs into citrated tubes, and platlet-poor plasma was obtained. The OHP assay and standard coagulation assays (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and fibrinogen concentration) were performed for each sample. The OHP assay outputs were tested for correlations with results of the standard coagulation assays, age, and sex.

Results—Modifications to the published methodology for the OHP assay were required for use with canine plasma, with less coagulation activator (thrombin) and more fibrinolysis activator (tissue plasminogen activator) than used with human plasma. Male dogs had a higher OHP than did females. High fibrinogen concentrations were associated with increases in maximum optical density, OHP, and overall coagulation potential, and reduced prothrombin time was associated with increases in maximum optical density, overall coagulation potential, OHP, and maximum slope.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results supported the use of the OHP assay as an accessible, cost-effective global coagulation assay. Further research is required to determine its clinical application as an alternative to thromboelastography or thrombin generation assays.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the clinical presentation and outcome in dogs diagnosed with Trypanosoma cruzi infection in nonendemic areas and to survey veterinary cardiologists in North America for Chagas disease awareness.

ANIMALS

12 client-owned dogs; 83 respondents from a veterinary cardiology listserv.

PROCEDURES

A retrospective, multicenter medical records review to identify dogs diagnosed with American trypanosomiasis between December 2010 and December 2020. An anonymous online survey was conducted August 9 to 22, 2022.

RESULTS

Diagnosis was made using indirect fluorescent antibody titer (n = 9), quantitative PCR assay (1), or postmortem histopathology (2). Time spent in Texas was < 1 year (n = 7) or 2 to 8 years (5). Time in nonendemic areas prior to diagnosis was < 1 year (n = 10) and > 3 years (2). Eleven had cardiac abnormalities. Of the 12 dogs, 5 had died unexpectedly (range, 1 to 108 days after diagnosis), 4 were still alive at last follow-up (range, 60 to 369 days after diagnosis), 2 were euthanized because of heart disease (1 and 98 days after diagnosis), and 1 was lost to follow-up. Survey results were obtained from 83 cardiologists in North America, of which the self-reported knowledge about Chagas disease was limited in 49% (41/83) and 69% (57/83) expressed interest in learning resources.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results highlight the potential for encountering dogs with T cruzi infection in nonendemic areas and need for raising awareness about Chagas disease in North America.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association