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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the activity of Kupffer cells (KC) of control neonatal pigs and neonatal pigs treated with endotoxin and to compare activity of KC with that of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM).

Sample Population—Kupffer cells and PAM obtained from 24 neonatal pigs (7 to 10 days old).

Procedure—Pairs (n = 7) of littermates served as treated (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) or untreated pigs. Pigs were euthanatized 24 hours after treatment, and cells were isolated. Cells were obtained from 10 other neonatal pigs for other assays. Functional activity of cells was evaluated by use of in vitro assays to evaluate bactericidal activity, phagocytosis, and production of superoxide anion (SOA), nitric oxide (NO), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Each assay was repeated on cells obtained from 4 to 6 pigs.

Results—Phagocytic activity was similar in KC and PAM, but bactericidal activity and production of SOA and TNF-α was lower in KC. Neither KC nor PAM produced NO in response to LPS stimulation. Phagocytosis, bactericidal activity, and production of SOA were enhanced for KC obtained from neonatal pigs treated with LPS. The PAM from LPS-treated neonatal pigs had similar bactericidal activity to PAM obtained from untreated pigs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Functional capacity of KC is affected by endotoxin. This provides additional information of the role the liver plays in immune surveillance. In addition, the response of KC in neonatal pigs exposed to endotoxin is of value for understanding gram-negative bacterial sepsis, which is a major cause of mortality in neonatal pigs. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1040–1045)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of preoperative administration of carprofen on renal function and hemostasis in dogs undergoing general anesthesia for fracture repair.

Animals—26 client-owned dogs.

Procedure—Anesthesia was induced with levomethadone, diazepam, and propofol and maintained by administration of isoflurane in oxygen-nitrous oxide. Carprofen (4 mg/kg, SC) was administered 1 hour before induction to 13 dogs (group 1) and after extubation to the other 13 dogs (group 2). All dogs also received carprofen (4 mg/kg, SC, q 24 h) for the first 4 days after surgery. Renal function (glomerular filtration rate [GFR], urinary protein-to-urinary creatinine ratio [UP:UC], and results of urinalysis and biochemical analysis of plasma), hemostatic variables (bleeding time, platelet aggregation, prothrombin time [PT], activated partial thromboplastin time [APTT], and platelet count), and Hct were assessed before and at various time points after surgery.

Results—Analysis of results for renal function tests, most of the hemostatic and plasma biochemical variables, and Hct did not reveal significant differences between treatment groups. Values for GFR, UP:UC, PT, APTT, and platelet aggregation were outside reference ranges in many dogs before surgery and during the first 6 hours after surgery. In most dogs, these trauma-induced pathologic changes returned to within reference ranges during the 4-day period after surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Carprofen did not cause clinically relevant adverse effects in dogs anesthetized for fracture repair after 5 days of treatment, even when it was administered before surgery or given to patients with trauma-induced alterations in renal function or hemostasis. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1356–1363)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of seizures in cats after head trauma.

Design—Retrospective cross-sectional study.

Animals—52 cats with head trauma.

Procedures—Information was obtained from medical records of cats with head trauma and via telephone interviews of owners at least 2 years after cats had head trauma. Severity of head trauma in cats was classified with the modified Glasgow coma scale (mGCS), and the association between scores and development of seizures was determined.

Results—9 cats had moderate head trauma (mGCS score, 9 to 14), and 43 cats had mild head trauma (mGCS score, 15 to 18). None of the cats developed seizures during the follow-up period (≥ 2 years after head injury). The calculated 95% confidence interval for prevalence of seizures in cats after head injury was 0% to 5.6%. There was no significant relationship between severity of head trauma and the risk of seizures in cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated the probability that cats with mild to moderate head trauma would develop posttraumatic seizures was low. However, clinicians should monitor cats with a history of head trauma for development of secondary epilepsy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To measure the absolute and relative volumes of cranial vaults of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs) and other brachycephalic dogs for the purpose of evaluating a possible association between the volume of the caudal fossa (fossa caudalis cerebri; CF) and existence of Chiari-like malformation (CLM) and syringohydromyelia in CKCSs.

Animals—40 CKCSs and 25 brachycephalic dogs.

Procedures—The intracranial vault of all dogs was evaluated via computed tomography followed by magnetic resonance imaging. Volumes of the CF and the rostral and medial fossa (fossa rostralis et medialis cerebri) were determined. The ratio of the absolute volumes was calculated as the volume index (VI).

Results—All CKCSs had cranial characteristics consistent with CLM. There were no significant differences between CKCSs and brachycephalic dogs with respect to the VI and absolute volumes of the CF and rostral and medial fossas. The CKCSs without syringohydromyelia (n = 26) had a median VI of 0.1842, and CKCSs with syringohydromyelia (14) had a median VI of 0.1805. The median VI of other brachycephalic dogs was 0.1864. The VI did not differ among these 3 groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested that descent of the cerebellum into the foramen magnum and the presence of syringohydromyelia in CKCSs are not necessarily associated with a volume reduction in the CF of the skull.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify hind limb and pelvic kinematic variables that change in trotting horses after induced lameness of the distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joints and after subsequent intra-articular administration of anesthetic.

Animals—8 clinically normal adult horses.

Procedure—Kinematic measurements were made before and after transient endotoxin-induced lameness of the distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joints and after intra-articular administration of anesthetic. Fourteen displacement and joint angle (metatarsophalangeal [fetlock] and tarsal joints) measurements were made on the right hind limb, sacrum, and the right and left tubera coxae. Kinematic measurements were compared by general linear models, using a repeated measures ANOVA. Post hoc multiple comparisons between treatments were evaluated with a Fisher least squared difference test at α = 0.05.

Results—After lameness induction, fetlock and tarsal joint extension during stance decreased, fetlock joint flexion and hoof height during swing increased, limb protraction decreased, and vertical excursion of the tubera coxae became more asymmetric. After intra-articular administration of anesthetic, limb protraction returned to the degree seen before lameness, and vertical excursion of the tubera coxae became more symmetric.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increased length of hind limb protraction and symmetry of tubera coxae vertical excursion are sensitive indicators of improvement in tarsal joint lameness. When evaluating changes in tarsal joint lameness, evaluating the horse from the side (to assess limb protraction) is as important as evaluating from the rear (to assess pelvic symmetry). (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1031–1036)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To examine outcome data for cats and dogs with congenital internal hydrocephalus following treatment via ventriculoperitoneal shunting to determine treatment-associated changes in neurologic signs, the nature and incidence of postoperative complications, and survival time.

Design—Retrospective multicenter case series.

Animals—30 dogs and 6 cats with congenital internal hydrocephalus (confirmed via CT or MRI).

Procedures—Medical records for dogs and cats with internal hydrocephalus that underwent unilateral ventriculoperitoneal shunt implantation from 2001 through 2009 were evaluated. Data collected included the nature and incidence of postoperative complications, change in clinical signs following surgery, and survival time. To compare pre- and postoperative signs, 2-way frequency tables were analyzed with a 1-sided exact McNemar test.

Results—8 of 36 (22%) animals developed postoperative complications, including shunt malfunction, shunt infection, and seizure events. Three dogs underwent shunt revision surgery. Thirteen (36%) animals died as a result of hydrocephalus-related complications or were euthanized. Following shunt implantation, clinical signs resolved in 7 dogs and 2 cats; overall, 26 (72%) animals had an improvement of clinical signs. After 18 months, 20 animals were alive, and the longest follow-up period was 9.5 years. Most deaths and complications occurred in the first 3 months after shunt placement.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that ventriculoperitoneal shunt implantation is a viable option for treatment of dogs or cats with congenital hydrocephalus. Because complications are most likely to develop in the first 3 months after surgery, repeated neurologic and imaging evaluations are warranted during this period.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of pedunculated lipomas and identify risk factors affecting postoperative complications and survival in horses at a veterinary teaching hospital undergoing surgery for colic caused by pedunculated lipomas.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—102 horses with a diagnosis of pedunculated lipoma.

Procedure—Age, breed, weight, and sex of horses with pedunculated lipomas were compared with the total equine hospital population and the population of horses admitted for abdominal surgery during the same period. Follow-up information was obtained by reevaluation or contact with owners via telephone or written request.

Results—Prevalence of pedunculated lipomas as a reason for abdominal surgery in horses, compared with the population of horses with and without lipomas admitted for abdominal surgery, was 10%. Castrated male Saddlebred and Arabian horses > 14 years old were identified as being at risk for developing pedunculated lipomas. Postoperative complications were detected in 72% of horses with pedunculated lipomas. Variables associated with low survival rates included surgery before 1992, heart rate > 80 beats/min, abnormal color of abdominal fluid, pale mucous membranes, surgery requiring intestinal resection, and inability to attain a mean arterial pressure ≥ 100 mm Hg. Horses undergoing surgery from 1992 to 1996, weighing < 409 kg (900 lb), or requiring jejunojejunal anastomosis had a high survival rate.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although many of the variables reflected the health of the horse at the time of surgery, results may help veterinarians recognize risk factors associated with development of pedunculated lipomas and better predict the outcome of horses undergoing surgery for colic caused by pedunculated lipomas. (J Am Vet Med Assoc2005; 226:1529–1537)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To measure effects of oral Akkermansia muciniphila administration on systemic markers of gastrointestinal permeability and epithelial damage following antimicrobial administration in dogs.

ANIMALS 8 healthy adult dogs.

PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either A muciniphila (109 cells/kg; n = 4) or vehicle (PBS solution; 4) for 6 days following metronidazole administration (12.5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 7 d). After a 20-day washout period, the same dogs received the alternate treatment. After another washout period, experiments were repeated with amoxicillin-clavulanate (13.5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) instead of metronidazole. Fecal consistency was scored, a quantitative real-time PCR assay for A muciniphila in feces was performed, and plasma concentrations of cytokeratin-18, lipopolysaccharide, and glucagon-like peptides were measured by ELISA before (T0) and after (T1) antimicrobial administration and after administration of A muciniphila or vehicle (T2).

RESULTS A muciniphila was detected in feces in 7 of 8 dogs after A muciniphila treatment at T2 (3/4 experiments) but not at T0 or T1. After metronidazole administration, mean change in plasma cytokeratin-18 concentration from T1 to T2 was significantly lower with vehicle than with A muciniphila treatment (−0.27 vs 2.4 ng/mL). Mean cytokeratin-18 concentration was lower at T1 than at T0 with amoxicillin-clavulanate. No other significant biomarker concentration changes were detected. Probiotic administration was not associated with changes in fecal scores. No adverse effects were attributed to A muciniphila treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Detection of A muciniphila in feces suggested successful gastrointestinal transit following oral supplementation in dogs. Plasma cytokeratin-18 alterations suggested an effect on gastrointestinal epithelium. Further study is needed to investigate effects in dogs with naturally occurring gastrointestinal disease.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research