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  • Author or Editor: J. H. Tan x
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To analyze the sex difference in 6 kinds of adenohypophyseal cells of Mongolian ponies and the effect of prepubertal orchidectomy on adenohypophyseal cells.

Sample Population

Pituitary glands collected from 15 adult Mongolian ponies, 5 to 10 years old: 5 stallions, 5 mares, and 5 geldings, orchidectomized between the ages of 1 and 2 years.


Morphologic comparison of 6 kinds of adenohypophyseal cells among mares, stallions, and geldings was done, using immunocytochemistry and morphometry.


A sex difference was evident in the percentage of somatotrophs, gonadotrophs (follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH] and luteinizing hormone [LH] cells), and lactotrophs in adult ponies: somatotrophs were more numerous (P = 0.0003) in stallions (approx 40%) than in mares (approx 25%), whereas FSH and LH cells and lactotrophs were more numerous (P = 0.0116, P = 0.0044, P = 0.0085, respectively) in mares (approx 10, 20, and 24%, respectively) than in stallions (approx 6, 15, and 15%, respectively). Prepubertal orchidectomy markedly reduced the proportion of somatotrophs (approx 28%; P = 0.0016) and increased that of lactotrophs (approx 22%; P = 0.0318) in geldings, compared with stallions. The LH cell area was larger in mares than stallions (P < 0.0001). Prepubertal orchidectomy increased FSH (P = 0.0005) and LH (P < 0.0001) cell areas in adult geldings, compared with stallions.


A sex difference exists in adenohypophyseal cells of adult ponies: somatotrophs are more abundant in stallions; FSH and LH cells and lactotrophs are more abundant in mares. Our data indicate that equine testes during postnatal life may stimulate development of GH cells while suppressing development of FSH and LH cells and lactotrophs. The effects of prepubertal orchidectomy on pony somatotrophs and lactotrophs differ greatly from effects on those cells in mice. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:262–266)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate baseline plasma cortisol and ACTH concentrations and responses to low-dose ACTH stimulation testing in ill foals.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—58 ill foals.

Procedures—Baseline cortisol and ACTH concentrations and cortisol concentrations after administration of a low dose of cosyntropin were determined within 6 hours after admission. Foals were assigned to 4 groups on the basis of age (≤ 24 hours vs 1 to 56 days) and presence of septicemia (yes vs no). Values were compared among groups and with values previously reported for healthy foals.

Results—Plasma cortisol concentrations 30 and 60 minutes after cosyntropin administration in foals ≤ 24 hours old were significantly higher than corresponding cortisol concentrations in older foals. In all 4 groups, plasma cortisol concentration 30 minutes after cosyntropin administration was significantly higher than baseline cortisol concentration or concentration 60 minutes after cosyntropin administration. No differences in baseline cor-tisol or ACTH concentration or in the ACTH-to-cortisol ratio were detected between groups or when ill foals were compared with healthy foals. A small number of ill foals had low baseline cortisol and ACTH concentrations or low responses to cosyntropin administration, compared with healthy foals.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that most ill foals in the present study population had adequate responses to cosyntropin administration. However, a small subset of ill foals appeared to have dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association