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  • Author or Editor: J. G. W. Wenzel x
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To compare a prescrotal castration technique with the conventional bilateral scrotal incision technique for castration of llamas.


Prospective randomized controlled trial.


10 clinically normal, sexually intact male llamas.


Five llamas were castrated by use of a 5-cm skin incision located 2 to 3 cm lateral to the ventral midline and approximately 15 cm cranial to the scrotum, which was closed with absorbable suture material to allow primary healing. Five other llamas were castrated via a more conventional technique, with a 5-cm scrotal incision positioned directly over each testis, which was allowed to heal by second intention.


The prescrotal technique required significantly more time to complete; however, no additional anesthesia was required to complete the longer procedure. Llamas castrated with the prescrotal technique required less aftercare and had less incisional pain when the area was palpated.

Clinical Implications—

Both techniques are safe and effective. Some clients, however, find the prescrotal technique more aesthetically acceptable. The prescrotal technique may be more clinically important where fly control is difficult. U Am Vet Med Assoc 1996:208:261-262)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine whether administration of a microdose of prostaglandin at the BAI HUI acupuncture point offers any advantage over IM injections for luteolysis, ovulatory interval, or systemic response in mares.

Animals—17 mature cycling mares, 3 to 20 years of age and weighing 400 to 500 kg.

Procedure—Conventional and microdoses of the prostaglandin dinoprost tromethamine (PGF), the analogue cloprostenol, or sterile water (control) were administered to mares in 7 treatment groups. Treatments were assigned by dose, administration site (semimembranosus, semitendinosus, or lumbosacral region), and treatment type (PGF, analogue, or sterile water). Mares were observed for ovulatory interval and systemic response to treatment, including heart, and respiratory rates, rectal temperature, and sweat score. Plasma progesterone concentrations were also determined at the time of treatment and at 24-hour intervals for 96 hours following treatment.

Results—Ovulatory interval was shortened and progesterone concentrations decreased in prostaglandintreated mares, compared with control mares, regardless of dose or treatment site. However, no differences in ovulatory interval were observed among prostaglandin-treated mares. Mares treated with conventional doses of PGF had greater systemic responses than mares treated with microdoses of PGF or sterile water.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of prostaglandins at the BAI HUI acupuncture point does not appear to offer any advantage over administration at standard IM injection sites for induction of luteolysis or to shorten the ovulatory interval. However, administration of a microdose of the analogue cloprostenol was effective at inducing luteolysis and shortening ovulatory interval regardless of administration site. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1285–1289)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Case records of cattle admitted to 2 university veterinary hospitals during 6 years were evaluated to determine the age, breed, sex, and treatment of cattle with upward fixation of the patella. Affected cattle were compared with those from the respective hospital populations of cattle admitted during the same time.

Of 38 cattle with upward fixation of the patella, 34 were treated surgically. Follow-up evaluation was obtained from owners of 28 of the treated cattle. Surgery was successful in eliminating all clinical signs in 25 of the 28 cattle. There was an increased risk of upward fixation of the patella associated with Brahman and Brahman-type cattle, compared with non-Brahman cattle.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association