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Summary

This feature is being sponsored by the American College of Veterinary Dermatology. Readers are invited to submit contributions, which should include: (1) a brief description of the case (150-500 words); (2) good-contrast glossy photographs, 5 by 7 in (color photographs will be accommodated without charge when color is deemed pivotal to the diagnosis), with internal scale marker for photomicrographs or electron micrographs; (3) a brief discussion of the abnormalitv that em~hasizesd ifferential diagnosis and prognosis and not prevalence and treatment.

Send comments and photographs to Dr. Peter J. Ihrke, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, or Dr. Stephen D. White, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Experimental pneumonia caused by Pasteurella haemolytica was induced in 2-week-old gnotobiotic (n = 4) and conventional (n = 6) calves by endobronchial inoculation into the right caudal lung lobe of 7.9 × 1010 ± 0.6 × 1010 (mean ± sd) colony-forming units of P haemolytica in the 6-hour log phase of growth. The calves were studied for 24 hours or less. Regression lines for the relationship between clinical index and time for the gnotobiotic group and conventional group of calves were compared, and the clinical index was found to be significantly (P ≤ 0.005) more rapid in the gnotobiotic group. There was also a significant difference in the preinoculation, absolute segmented neutrophil count (P ≤ 0.05), and in the total serum protein, albumin, and globulin values (P ≤ 0.05). Comparison of the preinoculation and post inoculation blood cell and blood chemical values revealed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the numbers of band neutrophils and fibrinogen in conventional calves, and a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in the total wbc count in gnotobiotic calves. Necropsy of both groups of calves revealed a circular to oblong lesion that was congested, edematous, and firm, and which occupied 20% to 100% of the right caudal lung lobe and involved the remaining lung lobes to a more minor degree. When mean lesion scores of the 2 groups of calves were compared, no significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) was found. Microscopic examination of the lungs revealed edema of the perivascular and interlobular septa and hemorrhage in the alveoli of both groups, although the conventional group had more fibrinopurulent inflammation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To establish ocular characteristics, determine nature and prevalence of ocular lesions, and identify representative bacterial flora from the conjunctiva of North American bison (Bison bison).

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

63 bison; 45 males and 18 females.

Procedure

Ophthalmic examinations were performed on 1 group of 38 bison in December 1997 and on a second group of 25 in March 1998. Eyes were examined with a penlight, magnification loop, and indirect ophthalmoscope. Two culture swabs were used to obtain samples from the inferior conjunctival sac. One swab was submitted for isolation of bacteria and the second was submitted for isolation of Mycoplasma organisms.

Results

15 ocular abnormalities were observed in 13 of the 63 bison. These included minor ocular discharge in 5 animals, 1 eyelid laceration, 1 periocular Demodex spp infection, 6 corneal abnormalities, 1 anterior synechia, and 1 cataract. Seventeen species of bacteria were isolated from the 63 swabs submitted for culture. The most prevalent bacteria were of the genus Bacillus (74.6%). Mycoplasma organisms were not observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Corneal abnormalities were the most frequently identified ocular lesions in bison. Bacterial flora of the conjunctiva and ocular characteristics were similar to those reported for cattle. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1142–1144)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia of the right caudal lung lobe was experimentally induced in 2-week-old Holstein calves (n = 11) by endobronchial inoculation of 7.9 × 1010 colony-forming units of 6-hour log-phase bacteria. Calves were studied for 72 hours after inoculation. The challenge procedure consistently induced a lesion in the right caudal lung lobe, which was consistent radiographically with results of pathologic examination and a similar volume of bronchography contrast medium. Clinically, the calves developed a significant increase in rectal temperature within 24 hours after inoculation. Seventy-two hours after inoculation, the total wbc counts, absolute band neutrophil counts, monocyte counts, and blood fibrinogen concentrations were significantly higher than normal and albumin concentration was significantly decreased. Necropsy revealed a circular to oblong lesion that was congested, edematous, and firm and occupied 20 to 40% of the right caudal lung lobe. Histologic examination revealed a severe acute inflammatory reaction characterized by cellular exudate and proteinaceous fluid in the alveoli, interlobular septa, and pleura.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research