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SUMMARY

The effect of methoxamine on retrograde flow of spermatozoa into the urinary bladder of domestic cats during electroejaculation and the incidence of retrograde flow during the collection of semen with an artificial vagina, or during mating was examined. In experiment 1, urine collected by cystocentesis prior to electroejaculation was azoospermic or contained few, nonmotile spermatozoa, whereas urine collected after electroejaculation contained more (P = 0.002) spermatozoa, and motile spermatozoa were evident in urine obtained from 6 of 8 cats. Administration of methoxamine hydrochloride (200 μg/kg of body weight, iv) did not affect spermatozoal output or percentage of retrograde flow. Percentage of retrograde flow for control cats ranged from 61.18 to 92.95% (mean ± sd, 80.00 ± 14.28%) and for methoxamine-treated cats, ranged from 15.25 to 92.49% (mean ± sd, 58.10 ± 32.28%), but the difference was not significant.

In experiment 2, an artificial vagina was used to collect semen from 5 of the 8 cats used in experiment 1. Urine collected by cystocentesis after ejaculation contained spermatozoa, and motile spermatozoa were evident in the urine from 4 of 5 cats. The mean (± sd) percentage of retrograde flow for these 5 cats was 46.82 ± 31.67% (range, 14.56 to 90.32%).

In experiment 3, each of the 5 cats that were used in experiments 1 and 2 were mated. Spermatozoa were recovered from the vagina of each mated female, and motile spermatozoa were also present in postejaculation urine obtained by cystocentesis from each of the 5 male cats. Mean total number of spermatozoa in the postmating urine was 29.42 ± 33.58 × 106 (range, 0.22 × 106 to 76.05 × 106 spermatozoa).

Anesthesia of cats with ketamine facilitated the obtention of urine by cystocentesis, but did not cause spermatozoal displacement into the urinary bladder. Results of this study confirm the fact that, in cats, appreciable numbers of spermatozoa are lost because of retrograde flow into the urinary bladder during electroejaculation. Recovery of spermatozoa from the urinary bladder after collection of semen with an artificial vagina or following natural mating, indicates that retrograde flow of spermatozoa is not an artifact derived from electrical stimulation, but is a component of the ejaculatory process in cats.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Retrograde flow of spermatozoa into the urinary bladder of dogs during ejaculation or after administration of xylazine was examined. In experiment 1, the mean (± SD) spermatozoal concentration in urine collected by cystocentesis before ejaculation was 0.322 ± 0.645 × 106/ml. After ejaculation, motile spermatozoa were present in the urine collected by cystocentesis from 12 of 15 dogs, and the concentration of spermatozoa in the urine (5.139 ± 7.014 × 106/ml) was higher (P < 0.025) than the concentration in the urine collected before ejaculation. The percentage of the total number of spermatozoa that were displaced during ejaculation and flowed into the urinary bladder (retrograde flow) ranged from 0 to 99.75% (24.67 ± 33.98%).

In experiments 2 and 3, administration of xylazine to sexually rested dogs induced retrograde flow of spermatozoa into the urinary bladder. In experiment 2, all dogs had spermatozoa in urine collected after xylazine administration, with motile spermatozoa present in the urine from 9 of 10 dogs. In experiment 3, urine collected from dogs before administration of xylazine was azoospermic or contained few, nonmotile spermatozoa (0.063 ± 0.135 × 106/ml), whereas urine collected after administration of xylazine had more (P < 0.025) and motile spermatozoa (3.717 ± 4.273 × 106/ml).

In experiment 4, administration of xylazine to dogs after ejaculation did not increase the concentration of spermatozoa in the urine. Results indicate that spermatozoa flow into the urinary bladder of dogs during ejaculation or after administration of xylazine to sexually rested dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To identify consistent relevant mechanisms of small intestinal dysfunction in cats with experimentally induced feline immunodeficiency virus infection (FIV) that developed chronic diarrhea during the time they were being used in studies of pathogenicity and transmission of FIV.

Animals

10 cats.

Procedure

The following investigative tests and techniques were performed on each of the cats: routine hematologic and serum biochemical analyses; urinalysis; fecal parasitologic and microbiologic examinations; breath hydrogen lactulose (BH2LT) and xylose (BH2XT) tests; intestinal permeability test; endoscopic examination of the intestinal mucosa; bacteriologic culture of endoscopically collected small intestinal juice; and histologic examination of endoscopically obtained intestinal biopsy specimens.

Results

Neutrophilia was evident in 3 cats, and lymphopenia was detected in 2 cats. Serum biochemical abnormalities were not observed. Urinalysis results were unremarkable. Fecal bacteriologic and parasitologic results were normal, except for isolation of Campylobacter sp from 1 cat. Abnormal BH2XT values suggestive of d-xylose malabsorption were identified in 2 cats, and BH2LT values indicated evidence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in 1 cat. Finally, permeability test results, quantitation of bacterial flora from the proximal part of the small intestine and histologic examination of biopsy specimens did not reveal any abnormalities.

Conclusions

Enteric pathogens did not account for the development of diarrhea in cats with experimentally induced FIV infection, and consistent relevant mechanisms of small intestinal dysfunction were not identified. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:569–574)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Serum glucose and immunoreactive insulin concentrations were monitored after topical administration of an insulin-containing ophthalmic solution in 20 clinically normal cats. Three ophthalmic surface-acting agents, benzalkonium chloride, dimethyl sulfoxide, and proparacaine hydrochloride, were evaluated individually for their effectiveness in enhancing absorption of topically applied insulin. The ophthalmic effects of insulin-containing ophthalmic preparations were assessed by complete ophthalmic examination before and at the conclusion of each test period. Withholding of food overnight (12 hours) preceded each topical application of insulin-containing ophthalmic solution (12.25 to 26.4 U/cat), either alone or in combination with surface-acting agents, after which blood samples were drawn serially from an indwelling iv catheter over a period of 8 hours. Baseline serum insulin concentration, after food was withheld for 12 hours, in nonstressed cats was 6.0 μU/ml (geometric mean), and an exponentiation of the logarithmic quantity (mean ± sd) yielded values of 1.5 to 23.0 μU/ml. All ophthalmic solutions tested failed to significantly lower serum glucose concentration or increase serum insulin concentration. Solutions used did not induce deleterious effect on ocular structures. Results indicate that topical administration of insulin-containing ophthalmic solution, either alone at the concentrations used or in combination with surfaceacting agents, did not result in effective absorption of insulin across the conjunctival and lacrimal nasal mucosa in biologically relevent quantities. Thus, this route of insulin administration, under these specific conditions, is not an effective alternative or adjunct to SC administration of insulin for treatment of cats with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or severe noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe postobstructive diuresis (POD) in cats undergoing surgical placement of ureteral stents or subcutaneous ureteral bypass systems for treatment of ureteral obstruction in cats and to identify factors associated with duration and maximum severity of POD.

DESIGN

Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS

37 client-owned cats with ureteral obstruction treated between August 2010 and December 2014.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed, and data extracted included signalment, history, results from physical examinations and clinical laboratory analyses, treatment, urine output, and outcome. Data were evaluated to identify factors associated with POD duration and maximum severity, alone or in combination.

RESULTS

Serum concentrations of creatinine, potassium, phosphorus, and BUN before surgery positively correlated with duration and maximum severity of POD. Absolute changes in serum concentrations of creatinine, potassium, and BUN from before surgery to after surgery positively correlated with POD duration. Cats with anuria before surgery had longer POD than did other cats; however, there was no difference in POD duration or maximum severity with unilateral versus bilateral ureteral obstruction. Thirty-four of 37 (92%) cats survived to hospital discharge, which was not associated with whether ureteral obstruction was unilateral or bilateral. Azotemia resolved in 17 of the 34 (50%) cats that survived to hospital discharge.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results of the present study indicated that several factors were associated with POD duration and maximum severity, alone or in combination, and that with intensive management of fluid and electrolyte derangements, regardless of the extent of the original azotemia, a high percentage of cats survived to hospital discharge.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association