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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the effect of dietary potassium citrate supplementation on the urinary pH, relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate and struvite (defined as the activity product/solubility product of the substance), and concentrations of magnesium, ammonium, phosphate, citrate, calcium, and oxalate in dogs.

Animals—12 healthy adult dogs.

Procedure—Canned dog food was fed to dogs for 37 days. Dogs were randomly allocated to 3 groups and fed test diets for a period of 8 days. Study periods were separated by 6-day intervals. During each study period the dogs were fed either standard diet solus (control) or standard diet plus 1 of 2 types of potassium citrate supplements (150 mg potassium citrate/kg of body weight/d) twice daily. Urinary pH, volume and specific gravity, relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate and struvite, and concentrations of magnesium, ammonium, phosphate, calcium, oxalate, and citrate were assessed for each treatment.

Results—Mean urine pH was not significantly affected by dietary potassium citrate supplementation, although urine pH did increase by 0.2 pH units with supplementation. Diets containing potassium citrate maintained a higher urine pH for a longer part of the day than control diet. Three Miniature Schnauzers had a significantly lower urinary relative calcium oxalate supersaturation when fed a diet supplemented with potassium citrate, compared with control diet.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dietary potassium citrate supplementation has limited effects on urinary variables in most healthy dogs, although supplementation results in maintenance of a higher urine pH later in the day. Consequently, if supplementation is introduced, dogs should be fed twice daily and potassium citrate should be given with both meals or with the evening meal only. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:430–435)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the efficacy of a retrobulbar bupivacaine nerve block for postoperative analgesia following eye enucleation in dogs.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—22 dogs.

Procedures—Client-owned dogs admitted to the hospital for routine eye enucleation were enrolled with owner consent and randomly assigned to a treatment (bupivacaine hydrochloride) or control (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution) group. Baseline subjective pain scores were recorded. Anesthesia consisted of hydromorphone and midazolam preoperatively, thiopental or propofol for induction, and isoflurane in oxygen for maintenance. An inferior-temporal palpebral retrobulbar injection of either saline solution or bupivacaine was administered. Transpalpebral eye enucleation was performed. Pain scores were recorded at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours after extubation (time 0) by observers masked to treatment groups. Dogs were given hydromorphone (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb], IM or IV) as a rescue analgesic if the subjective pain score totaled ≥ 9 (out of a maximum total score of 18) or ≥ 3 in any 1 category.

Results—9 of 11 control dogs required a rescue dose of hydromorphone, but only 2 of 11 dogs in the bupivacaine treatment group required rescue analgesia. Mean time to treatment failure (ie, administration of rescue analgesia following extubation) was 0.56 hours (95% confidence interval, 0.029 to 1.095 hours) for the 11 dogs that received hydromorphone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Retrobulbar administration of bupivacaine in dogs in conjunction with traditional premedication prior to eye enucleation was an effective form of adjunctive analgesia and reduced the need for additional postoperative analgesics.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Kittens are the principal disseminators of Toxoplasma gondii. They can shed > 108 oocysts in the feces after initial infection with bradyzoites in tissue cysts. Thereafter, most kittens develop protective immunity and do not shed oocysts again if they are reinfected. Bradyzoites of a T gondii mutant, designated T-263, were used to vaccinate kittens. Their use did not result in oocyst shedding, but successfully prevented 84% (31/37) of the kittens from shedding oocysts when challenge exposed with a normal isolate of T gondii. Vaccination of outdoor-roaming cats and kittens would be a useful public health measure to prevent transmission of toxoplasmosis near homes, on farms, and in zoos. It is anticipated that several years will be required for a lyophilized bradyzoite vaccine to be ready for licensing and possible commercial availability.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

A new serotype of calicivirus was isolated from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with severe vesicular disease. Neutralizing antibodies were found in 27 of 82 (32.9%) serum samples from California sea lions and in 15 of 146 (10.3%) serum samples from Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) tested. The seropositive animals were widely dispersed along the margins of the eastern Pacific basin, from the Bering Sea to the Santa Barbara Channel. Seropositive samples were found from as early as 1976 through the present time. This new calicivirus serotype, San Miguel sea lion virus type 13, was inoculated into weaned pigs, resulting in induction of severe vesicular disease, which spread to all pigs, including uninoculated pen contacts. Virus was continually shed by most of the pigs throughout the 2-week duration of the experiment.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify patterns and correlations of gross, histologic, and gene expression characteristics of articular cartilage from horses with osteoarthritis.

Animals—10 clinically normal horses and 11 horses with osteoarthritis of the metacarpal condyles.

Procedures—Metacarpophalangeal joints were opened and digitally photographed, and gross lesions were scored and quantified. Representative cartilage specimens were stained for histologic scoring. Total RNA from dorsal and palmar articular surfaces was processed on an equine gene expression microarray.

Results—Histologic scores were greater in both regions of osteoarthritic joints, compared with corresponding regions in control joints. Cartilage from the palmar aspect of diseased joints had the highest histologic scores of osteoarthritic sites or of either region in control joints. A different set of genes for dorsal and palmar osteoarthritis was identified for high and low gene expression. Articular cartilage from the dorsal region had surface fraying and greater expression of genes coding for collagen matrix components and proteins with anti-apoptotic function, compared with control specimens. Articular cartilage from the palmar region had greater fraying, deep fissures, and less expression of genes coding for glycosaminoglycan matrix formation and proteins with anti-apoptotic function, compared with cartilage from disease-free joints and the dorsal aspect of affected joints.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Metacarpal condyles of horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis had an identifiable and regional gene expression signature with typical morphologic features.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare hydromorphone with oxymorphone, with or without acepromazine, for preanesthetic sedation in dogs and assess changes in plasma concentration of histamine after drug administration.

Design—Randomized clinical study.

Animals—10 healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were treated IM with hydromorphone (group H), oxymorphone (group O), hydromorphone with acepromazine (group H/A), or oxymorphone with acepromazine (group O/A). Sedation score, heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were recorded at baseline immediately after drug administration (T0) and every 5 minutes for 25 minutes (T25). Plasma histamine concentration was measured at baseline and T25.

Results—Sedation was similar between groups H and O at all times. Sedation was significantly greater for groups H/A and O/A from T10 to T25, compared with other groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced at T25 in group H/A, compared with group H, and in group O/A, compared with group O. Prevalence of panting at T25 was 50% for groups H and O, compared with 20% for group H/A and 30% for group O/A. By T25, heart rate was significantly lower in all groups. Oxygen saturation was unaffected by treatment. Mean ± SD plasma histamine concentration was 1.72 ± 2.69 ng/ml at baseline and 1.13 ± 1.18 ng/ml at T25. There was no significant change in plasma histamine concentration in any group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hydromorphone is comparable to oxymorphone for preanesthetic sedation in dogs. Sedation is enhanced by acepromazine. Neither hydromorphone nor oxymorphone caused an increase in plasma histamine concentration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1101–1105)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether bulk-tank standard plate counts or plate loop counts and bulk-tank somatic cell counts (SCC) were associated with detection of violative antimicrobial residues in milk from dairy cattle.

Design—Longitudinal study.

Procedure—Information for 1994 through 1997 was obtained from a large milk marketing cooperative that operated in multiple states throughout the northeastern and midwestern United States (16,831 herd-years of information from 6,546 farms) and from the Ohio Department of Agriculture Grade-A Milk Certification Program (12,042 herd-years of information from 4,022 farms). Data were analyzed by use of multivariate logistic regression.

Results—For both data sets, odds that a violative antibiotic residue would be detected increased as mean SCC for the herd-year increased. Standard plate counts and plate loop counts were not associated with odds that a violative antibiotic residue would be detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested that the odds that a violative antibiotic residue would be found in bulk-tank milk increased as mean SCC for the herd-year increased. This suggests that management practices that would be expected to influence SCC may also influence the risk of antibiotic residue violations. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:541–545)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To examine, in horses, the disposition and excretion of the active metabolite 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6MNA) of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory prodrug nabumetone.

Design

Pharmacokinetic analysis of 6MNA after oral administration of nabumetone and IV administration of 6MNA.

Procedure

Using a crossover design, 5 horses were orally administered 3.7 mg of nabumetone/kg of body weight. After a 3-week washout period, 4 horses were administered 2.5 mg of 6MNA/kg, IV.

Results

Absorption of nabumetone from the gastrointestinal tract and its metabolism to 6MNA had a median appearance half-life of 0.88 hour. The elimination half-life was 11 hours. Area under the plasma concentration time curve for 6MNA after oral administration of nabumetone was 120.6 mg/h/L. A dose of 2.5 mg/kg of 6MNA administered IV resulted in plasma concentration nearly equivalent to that induced by the orally administered dose. Disposition of 6MNA was modeled as a one-compartment, first-order elimination. The area under the plasma concentration time curve for IV administration of 6MNA was 117.0 mg/h/L, and the specific volume of distribution was 0.247 L/kg. The distribution half-life and the elimination half-life were 0.56 and 7.90 hours, respectively. Percentage of total dose recovered in urine for the 36-hour collection period after the oral and IV administrations was 7.4 and 5.3%, respectively.

Conclusions

Metabolism of nabumetone to 6MNA, as reported in other species, also occurs in horses. There were a number of additional metabolites of nabumetone in urine that could not be fully identified and characterized. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:517–521)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association