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  • Author or Editor: J. Daniel Harkins x
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SUMMARY

Gentamicin sulfate, equivalent to 4 mg of gentamicin base/kg of body weight, was administered iv to 6 Thoroughbred foals on day 1 (12 to 24 hours of age) and at 5, 10, 15, and 30 days after birth. On day 40 after parturition, gentamicin was given to the mares at a dosage similar to that used in foals. Decay of serum gentamicin concentrations was best described by a 2-compartment model. Among foals, the overall elimination rate constant at 30 days of age was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than at days 1, 10, and 15. There was, however, no difference in the overall elimination rate constant between foals and mares. The volume of distribution (Vd), determined on the basis of total area under the disposition curve, did not change between day 1 and day 30. Mean values of Vd of foals were between 1.5 and 2.5 times higher than the mean Vd of the mares; however, only values from the foals at days 5 and 10 were significantly greater. Both age and interindividual differences were reflected in the total body clearance (ClB) of gentamicin. Total body clearance of gentamicin of foals on day 1 was less than that of foals on days 5, 10, and 30. Additionally, ClB of gentamicin on day 15 was less than that on day 30. There was no significant difference between ClB of foals and mares except for the day-30 group, which had a higher clearance rate than did the adults. Protein binding of gentamicin was < 30% in all groups, and there were no apparent age-related differences.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine pharmacokinetics of single and multiple doses of rimantadine hydrochloride in horses and to evaluate prophylactic efficacy of rimantadine in influenza virus-infected horses.

Animals

5 clinically normal horses and 8 horses seronegative to influenza A.

Procedure

Horses were given rimantadine (7 mg/kg of body weight, IV, once; 15 mg/kg, PO, once; 30 mg/kg, PO, once; and 30 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 4 days) to determine disposition kinetics. Efficacy in induced infections was determined in horses seronegative to influenza virus A2. Rimantadine was administered (30 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 7 days) beginning 12 hours before challenge-exposure to the virus.

Results

Estimated mean peak plasma concentration of rimantadine after IV administration was 2.0 µg/ml, volume of distribution (mean ± SD) at steady-state (VdSS) was 7.1 ± 1.7 L/kg, plasma clearance after IV administration was 51 ± 7 ml/min/kg, and β-phase halflife was 2.0 ± 0.4 hours. Oral administration of 15 mg of rimantadine/kg yielded peak plasma concentrations of < 50 ng/ml after 3 hours; a single oral administration of 30 mg/kg yielded mean peak plasma concentrations of 500 ng/ml with mean bioavailability (F) of 25%, β-phase half-life of 2.2 ± 0.3 hours, and clearance of 340 ± 255 ml/min/kg. Multiple doses of rimantadine provided steady-state concentrations in plasma with peak and trough concentrations (mean ± SEM) of 811 ± 97 and 161 ± 12 ng/ml, respectively. Rimantadine used prophylactically for induced influenza virus A2 infection was associated with significant decreases in rectal temperature and lung sounds.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Oral administration of rimantadine to horses can safely ameliorate clinical signs of influenza virus infection. (Am J Vet Med 1999:60:888–894)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research