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Abstract

Objective

To compare the biochemical, histochemical, and immunohistochemical profiles of articular cartilage from horses with naturally acquired distal tibial osteochondrosis (OC) with cartilage from a similar location in clinically normal horses.

Animals

9 affected horses (group 1, 16 OC lesions) and 4 control horses (group 2, 8 normal osteochondral specimens).

Procedure

OC specimens were collected during arthroscopic removal of the fragment, and control specimens were collected by aseptic osteotomy. Uronic acid, total protein, total glycosaminoglycan (GAG), chondroitin sulfate (CS), and keratan sulfate (KS) contents were determined. Histomorphologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical examinations were performed on specimens after snap freezing at −80 C and cryosectioning. Monoclonal antibodies (MAB) 3B3 and 5D4 were applied for location of epitopes of CS and KS, respectively.

Results

OC lesions had significantly lower quantity of uronic acid, total GAG, and CS, compared with normal cartilage. OC cartilage had significantly less intense staining with toluidine blue, along with irregular cellularity and tidemark characteristics, compared with normal cartilage. Monoclonal antibodies 3B3 and 5D4 stained OC cartilage, whereas MAB 5D4 did not stain control cartilage. Additionally, MAB 3B3 and 5D4 stained the fibrous tissue that was found firmly attached to the OC lesion located between the parent distal portion of the tibia and OC fragment.

Conclusion

OC cartilage lesions of the distal intermediate ridge of the tibia in horses are biochemically, histochemically, and immunohistochemically distinct from normal cartilage from the same location. Results may reflect the inability of the chondrocyte of the developing joint to alter matrix components that would allow proper maturation and differentiation into bone. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:89–98)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the response of cortical bone to a multicomponent and nanostructural polymeric matrix as a drug delivery system for enhancing bone healing.

Animals—20 healthy adult crossbred goats.

Procedures—A 3.5-mm-diameter unicortical defect was created in each tibia (day 0), and goats (4 goats/group) were treated as follows: not treated (control group), grafted with the matrix, grafted with antimicrobial (tigecycline and tobramycin)–impregnated matrix, grafted with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein type 2 (rhBMP-2)–impregnated matrix, or grafted with antimicrobial- and rhBMP-2–impregnated matrix. Elution kinetics of antimicrobials was monitored through plasma concentrations. Bone response was assessed with radiographic scoring (days 1 and 30) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (days 1, 14, and 30). Goats were euthanized on day 30, and histomorphologic analysis was performed. Categorical variables were analyzed with a generalized linear model, and continuous variables were analyzed with an ANOVA.

Results—Plasma antimicrobial concentrations indicated continued release throughout the study. Radiography and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry did not reveal significant differences among treatments on day 30. Periosteal reactions were significantly greater surrounding bone defects grafted with rhBMP-2–impregnated matrix than those not treated or grafted with matrix or with antimicrobial-impregnated matrix; periosteal reactions were similar in bone defects grafted with rhBMP-2–impregnated matrix and antimicrobial- and rhBMP-2–impregnated matrix.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The matrix served as an antimicrobial delivery system and stimulated bone proliferation when rhBMP-2 was present. Antimicrobial and rhBMP-2 can be used concurrently, but the presence of antimicrobials may affect the performance of rhBMP-2.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Medical records of 17 horses in which a distal sesamoid bone fracture was diagnosed between 1982 and 1992 were reviewed. There were 8 Standardbreds, 6 Quarter Horses, 2 Thoroughbreds, and 1 Arabian. Mean age was 4.7 years. A forelimb was affected in 15 horses, and a hind limb was affected in 2. All horses were lame, and most were grade III/V lame at the trot. In all horses, the diagnosis was confirmed by means of radiography. Five horses were treated with stall rest alone; 5 underwent neurectomy; 4 were treated with stall rest and corrective shoeing; and 1 was treated with stall rest and external coaptation. The other 2 horses were euthanatized. Two Quarter Horses, 1 treated with stall rest and corrective shoeing and the other treated with stall rest and external coaptation, returned to use as halter horses, and 2 Standardbreds treated with stall rest alone returned to racing, but at a lower level than they had raced prior to injury. One horse that underwent neurectomy could be used for pleasure riding. Long-term rest may be important in achieving a successful outcome. Pleasure horses would appear to have a better prognosis for return to use after a distal sesamoid bone fracture than do performance horses.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To document plasma, urine, and synovial fluid disposition of 2 common intra-articularly administered steroid preparations, methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) and isoflupredone acetate (IPA).

Design

Descriptive investigation.

Sample Population

100 mg of MPA or 4 mg of IPA was administered to 2 groups of 4 healthy sound radiographically normal female horses.

Procedure

Blood samples were collected at time 0 (before) and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 hours after administration of the designated steroid. Complete urine collection for measurement of designated steroid was accomplished by use of occluding 28-F balloon catheters. Synovial fluid samples were aseptically aspirated from the injected and contralateral uninjected tarsocrural joint at time 0 and 8, 24, 48, 240, and 672 hours after administration of the designated steroid. All samples were screened by ELISA to detect parent drug or metabolite equivalent, with a sensitivity of 2.5 ng/ml for MPA and 0.1 ng/ml for IPA. If drug was detected by ELISA in the plasma or synovial fluid, the samples were further quantified and specified, using HPLC with a lower limit of quantification (10 ng/ml).

Results

Between 2 and 12 hours after administration, plasma contained < 10 ng of MPA or IPA/ml (parent drug or metabolite equivalent), as intermittently detected by ELISA. Parent drug or metabolite equivalent was detected in the urine for 24 and 72 hours after injection of IPA and MPA, respectively. Synovial fluid from the contralateral joint contained no detectable MPA or IPA at any sample collection time. Median half-life for MPA, as detected by HPLC, was 10.3 hours (range, 6.1 to 10.6) in the synovial space. Median half-life for methylprednisolone, as detected by HPLC, was 10.4 (range, 9.9 to 32.1) hours.

Conclusions

Both steroids appeared to be rapidly hydrolyzed to their respective ester forms, as detected by HPLC. The ELISA appeared to be a useful screening tool for detection of corticosteroids in this variety of body fluids.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether ether-a-go-go (ERG) potassium channels are expressed in equine gastrointestinal smooth muscle, whether ERG channel antagonists affect jejunal muscle contraction in vitro, and whether plasma cisapride concentrations in horses administered treatment for postoperative ileus (POI) are consistent with ERG channels as drug targets.

Sample Population—Samples of intestinal smooth muscle obtained from 8 horses free of gastrointestinal tract disease and plasma samples obtained from 3 horses administered cisapride for treatment of POI.

Procedure—Membranes were prepared from the seromuscular layer of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, large colon, and small colon. Immunoblotting was used to identify the ERG channel protein. Isolated jejunal muscle strips were used for isometric stress response to ERG channel blockers that included E-4031, MK-499, clofilium, and cisapride. Plasma concentrations of cisapride were determined in 3 horses administered cisapride for treatment of POI after small intestinal surgery.

Results—Immunoblotting identified ERG protein in all analyzed segments of the intestinal tract in all horses. The selective ERG antagonist E-4031 caused a concentration- dependent increase in jejunal contraction. Clofilium, MK-499, and cisapride also increased jejunal contraction at concentrations consistent with ERG channel block; effects of E-4031 and cisapride were not additive. Peak plasma cisapride concentrations in treated horses were consistent with ERG block as a mechanism of drug action.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The ERG potassium channels modulate motility of intestinal muscles in horses and may be a target for drugs. This finding may influence development of new prokinetic agents and impact treatment of horses with POI. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:267–272)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To estimate sensitivity and accuracy of subjective evaluation of mild lameness in horses during treadmill locomotion and to correlate subjective evaluation with kinematic analysis.

Animals

19 lame and 5 clinically normal horses.

Procedure

Lameness was evaluated by subjective score and kinematic analysis before and after palmar digital nerve block (PDNB). Evaluations were made by 6 clinicians and 7 interns or residents. Within- and between-observer agreement analyses (κ values) were calculated and compared, using a Student’s t-test. Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated between clinician’s change in score and the change in kinematic variables after PDNB.

Results

Within-observer agreement was within the range expected for conditions of moderate diagnostic difficulty. Within-observer agreement was higher for clinicians than for interns or residents. Between-observer agreement was acceptable for scores within 1 value of each other. Between-observer agreement of change in lameness score after PDNB was poor. When kinematic variables were ranked with each clinician’s subjective change in score, only 2 were among the top 3 for the majority of clinicians. Asymmetry of vertical head movement between contralateral forelimb stance phases and the point of maximum hoof height during swing decreased as lameness subjectively improved.

Conclusion

Mild lameness may be difficult to evaluate during treadmill locomotion. Although clinicians were more repeatable in their subjective evaluation of lameness than interns or residents, they were not more reliable at detecting the true state of lameness.

Clinical Relevance

Lack of agreement between clinician scoring of mild lameness emphasizes the need to use more objective measures for quantifying lameness. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1370–1377)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research