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Summary

Ten indexing and abstracting reference sources were examined for their coverage of 60 core veterinary medical journals. The costs of the indexes also were compared. Coverage of the 60 core veterinary journals ranged from 8 of 60 journals by Current Contents—Life Sciences to 57 of 60 by Index Veterinarius. Based on yearly costs, format, and coverage of the 60 core veterinary journals, Small Animal Practice and the 2 editions of Veterinary Reference Service were determined to be the most useful for private practitioners. The Index Veterinarius gives the most complete coverage of the core veterinary journals for veterinary research workers who have access to a library.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Two commercially available infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (ibk) vaccines were evaluated for their effectiveness in protecting cattle from disease caused by experimental challenge exposure and natural transmission of Moraxella bovis infections. The study was conducted as 2 experiments, using a total of 81 cattle that were culture-negative for M bovis prior to vaccination. In each experiment, young adult cattle were randomly allotted to 4 groups. Each calf in groups 1 and 2 was vaccinated according to the vaccine manufacturer's directions. Groups 3 and 4 were unvaccinated controls. Three weeks after the last vaccination, each calf in groups 1 and 3 was experimentally challenge exposed by dropping a suspension of viable cells of a virulent strain of M bovis directly onto the corneal surface of each eye. Calves in all 4 groups were then commingled in open pastures so that calves in groups 2 and 4 could be naturally exposed to the calves with experimentally induced infections. Each calf was examined for signs of ocular disease on a regular basis by 2 experienced clinicians who scored each eye for severity of disease on the basis of a prearranged scale. Neither clinician was aware of the vaccination or exposure status of the calf nor to which experimental group they belonged. Lacrimal secretions were collected regularly to determine the number of eyes in which the virulent organism became established.

Moraxella bovis with bacterial cultural characteristics similar to those of the virulent strain placed in the eyes of groups 1 and 3 was cultured from ≥ 83% of the eyes of calves in all groups. The incidence of clinical ibk was ≥ 50% in each group. There was no significant difference in the ability of vaccinated calves to resist experimental or natural challenge infection. Compared with that in nonvaccinated controls, no decreased incidence or severity of clinical ibk was noticed in vaccinated calves. Though the challenge strain used was not homologous to those used to prepare the vaccine, it was no different than those that may be expected to cause disease under field conditions.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Efficacy of a 1% solution of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (cmc) infused into the peritoneal cavity of ewes was evaluated for prevention of intraperitoneal adhesions resulting from surgery of the reproductive tract. Six ewes were assigned to each of 4 groups. Group-1 ewes were controls that underwent ventral midline celiotomy and exploration of the abdominal viscera. Group-2 ewes were treated similarly to group-1 ewes, except that a 1% solution of cmc (14 ml/kg of body weight) was infused into the peritoneal cavity. This group was studied to determine whether cmc would cause changes in the peritoneal cavity. Group-3 comprised ewes representing a uterine trauma model. Ewes underwent abdominal exploration, but in addition had a standard embryo collection technique performed on 1 uterine horn and hysterotomy performed on the opposite uterine horn. Group-4 ewes were treated like group-3 ewes, except that, similar to treatment of group-2 ewes, cmc was infused into the peritoneal cavity. All ewes were euthanatized and necropsied 12 to 14 days after surgery.

Abdominal adhesions were evaluated, and an adhesion severity score was assigned to each ewe on the basis of number and severity of the adhesions. Ewes of all groups had abdominal adhesions. Significantly (P < 0.05) lower adhesion score was observed in ewes given cmc (groups 2 and 4) than in the adhesion model (group 3). Significant difference was not observed in adhesion score when groups 1, 2, or 4 were compared. Though not statistically significant, fewer adhesions were observed in ewes of groups 2 and 4 than in group-1 ewes.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Equine amnion and live yeast cell derivative were evaluated as a biological dressing and as a topical wound medicament respectively, in the treatment of granulating wounds of the distal portion of the limbs of horses. Wounds measuring 2.5 × 2.5 cm were created on the dorsomedial aspect of the metacarpal and metatarsal region of all 4 limbs of 9 horses. Each wound was assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatment groups: group C, treated with a nonadherent bandage as a control; group A, treated with amnion beneath a nonadherent bandage; and group L, treated with live yeast cell derivative beneath a nonadherent bandage. Rates of contraction and epithelialization were not significantly different among groups. Percentage of epithelialization for group A was significantly greater throughout the study than for the other groups. Number of days to complete healing was significantly less in group A and significantly greater in group L than in group C. Incidence and severity of exuberant granulation tissue were significantly less in group A than in the other 2 groups. Group L had more frequent and severe cases of exuberant granulation tissue than the other 2 groups.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A sensitive and specific dna probe for detection and identification of bovine herpesvirus 4 (bhv-4) was developed. Cloned fragments from a library of HindIII fragments of the bhv-4 (DN-599) genome were labeled with 32P or digoxigenin and were tested for sentitivity and specificity in detecting viral dna by dot-blot hybridization. Two probes were identified that detected 10 pg of purified viral dna, and detected viral dna in 0.001 μg of total dna extracted from bhv-4-infected cells. Both probes labeled with 32P and 1 labeled with digoxigenin detected viral dna in samples prepared from cells infected with 2 prototype strains (DN-599 and Movar 33/63) and 4 field isolates of bhv-4. The dna probes did not hybridize to total dna prepared from uninfected bovine cells or from cells infected with bhv-1, bhv-2, alcelaphine herpesvirus 1, pseudorabies virus, or equine herpesvirus 1. One probe, labeled with digoxigenin, was tested further by dot-blot hybridization with infected cell lysates that were simply treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate and proteinase K prior to application to the membrane, avoiding extensive dna purification procedures. This simplified procedure also resulted in specific detection of field isolates of bhv-4 and prototype strains of bhv-4.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine which electrodiagnostic tests yield abnormal findings in cats with GM1 gangliosidosis, and to determine the approximate age of onset of electrodiagnostic abnormalities.

Animals

Cats (28 to 335 days old) affected with GM1 gangliosidosis (n = 11) and unaffected controls (n = 14).

Procedure

Cats were grouped by age: group 1, ≤ 90 days; group 2, 91 to 200 days; and group 3, > 200 days. Electrodiagnostic tests were conducted, including needle electromyography, motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, spinal evoked potentials, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials. Results for control and affected cats were compared, using the general linear model for ANOVA and Scheffe's test for multiple comparisons.

Results

Needle electromyography did not reveal abnormal spontaneous activity in skeletal muscles of any cat; furthermore, statistical analysis did not indicate significant difference between affected and control groups for nerve conduction velocity, confirming that degeneration of peripheral nerve fibers is not a feature of this disease. However, spinal evoked potentials were abnormal in group-3 cats; conduction velocity within sensory pathways in the cranial part of the spinal cord was significantly slower in GM1-affected cats (P = 0.0002). Brainstem auditory evoked responses also were abnormal: wave V (generated in the region of the pons) had prolonged latency in cats of groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.0003 and 0.0001, respectively, at 90 decibels sound pressure level). In the oldest cats, latencies for earlier waves within the auditory pathway also were prolonged; wave I (generated by the cochlear nerve) was prolonged in group-3 cats (P = 0.0423).

Conclusion

Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities remained within normal limits in GM1-affected cats. However, spinal evoked potentials indicated slowing in conduction velocity along the cranial part of the spinal cord in group 3 cats. Brainstem auditory evoked responses indicated prolonged latencies in cats of groups 2 and 3. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:706–709)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Ultrasonic pachymetry was used to measure central, superior peripheral, and temporal peripheral corneal thicknesses of 75 dogs (150 eyes) with normal corneas, anterior chambers, and intraocular pressure. Mean corneal thickness averaged over the 2 eyes, 3 locations, and 75 dogs was 562 ± 6.2 μm. The peripheral cornea was thicker on average than the central cornea by 49.43 ± 8.45 μm and this difference increased with age at 6.97 ± 1.3 μm/month of age. Mean corneal thickness changed with age (14.23 ± 2.26 μm/month), and weight (1.83 ± 0.38 μm/kg). Females had significantly thinner corneas (22.43 ± 11.03 μm than males) after adjusting for age and weight.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the lowest ACTH dose that would induce a significant increase in serum cortisol concentration and identify the time to peak cortisol concentration in healthy neonatal foals.

Design—Prospective randomized crossover study.

Animals—11 healthy neonatal foals.

Procedures—Saline (0.9% NaCl) solution or 1 of 4 doses (0.02, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 μg/kg [0.009, 0.045, 0.114, and 0.227 μg/lb]) of cosyntropin (synthetic ACTH) was administered IV. Serum cortisol concentrations were measured before and 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes after administration of cosyntropin or saline solution; CBCs were performed before and 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after administration.

Results—Serum cortisol concentration was significantly increased, compared with baseline, by 10 minutes after cosyntropin administration at doses of 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 μg/kg. Serum cortisol concentration peaked 20 minutes after administration of cosyntropin at doses of 0.02, 0.1, and 0.25 μg/kg, with peak concentrations 1.7, 2.0, and 1.9 times the baseline concentration, respectively. Serum cortisol concentration peaked 30 minutes after cosyntropin administration at a dose of 0.5 μg/kg, with peak concentration 2.2 times the baseline concentration. No significant differences were detected among peak serum cortisol concentrations obtained with cosyntropin administration at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 μg/kg. Cosyntropin administration significantly affected the lymphocyte count and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that in healthy neonatal foals, the lowest dose of cosyntropin to result in significant adrenal gland stimulation was 0.25 μg/kg, with peak cortisol concentration 20 minutes after cosyntropin administration.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Mean conduction velocity of sensory axons of the dorsal penile nerves of clinically normal bulls was determined by recording action potentials evoked by cutaneous stimulation. Locations of stimulating and recording electrodes were standardized. Overall mean ± sd conduction velocity was 55.1 ± 5.1 m/s. Mean ± sd velocity recorded from the distal electrode was 53.3 ± 4.9 m/s; velocity recorded from the middle electrode was 55.3 ± 5.0 m/s; and velocity recorded from the proximal electrode was 56.7 ± 5.1 m/s. Differences among means were not significant Four bulls had mean conduction velocities of 54.0 m/s and 48.4 m/s before and 3 weeks after castration, respectively.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research