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SUMMARY

The role of platelet-activating factor in mediating the cardiovascular and peripheral cellular responses to large-colon ischemia and reperfusion, was explored in anesthetized ponies. A specific platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonist (WEB 2086) was administered to a group of 6 ponies, and another 6 ponies (controls) were given an equivalent volume of saline solution, prior to 1 hour of large-colon torsion. After correction of the torsion, ponies were monitored during the reperfusion period. Significant (P < 0.05) hypotension and metabolic acidosis developed in all ponies after correction of colonic torsion, cardiac index increased initially, but then decreased significantly (P < 0.05) over the study period. Mean times between correction of torsion and onset of cardiac failure and death were not different between groups. Significant (P < 0.05) thrombocytopenia developed during the reperfusion period in control ponies, but not in WEB-treated ponies. Blood leukocyte concentration in control ponies was more variable and significantly (P < 0.05) decreased immediately upon reperfusion, compared with that in WEB-treated ponies. We conclude that although the cardiovascular responses to colonic ischemia and reperfusion are not prevented by use of a specific paf-antagonist, specific peripheral cellular responses are mediated by paf.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The role of platelet-activating factor (paf) in mediating the colonic damage that develops after large-colon torsion was studied in 14 ponies. Morphologic changes in areas of the ascending colon and selected abdominal and thoracic viscera after 1 hour of large-colon torsion and 3 to 5 hours of reperfusion were determined, as well as the protective effects of systemic administration of a specific paf antagonist (WEB 2086). Ponies were selected then allocated at random and in equal numbers to 2 groups that received 1 of 2 treatments prior to induction of large-colon torsion: group 1 —control (saline solution), and group 2 — WEB 2086 (3 mg/kg of body weight loading dose and 3 mg/kg/h for the remainder of the study). In each pony, full-thickness tissue specimens from the gastrointestinal tract —cecum, pelvic flexure, left and right ventral colon, and right dorsal colon —heart, left lung, liver, left adrenal gland, spleen, and right kidney were collected and histologically evaluated. Edema, mucosal necrosis, and neutrophil infiltration in colonic sections were graded from 0 (normal) to 3 (most severe changes). Sections of liver and lung from 3 ponies in each group, and colon from 1 pony in each group, also were examined by transmission electron microscopy to determine the presence of ultrastructural alterations.

Ischemia and reperfusion induced marked changes in all sections of colon in all ponies: moderate to severe submucosal edema, moderate necrosis of the superficial epithelium and lamina propria, and necrosis of the mucosal crypt epithelium. Extra-vascular neutrophil accumulation was evident in all sections of colon and cecum, but not in other tissues. Ultrastructural lesions were not present in hepato-cytes or pneumocytes, or in the endothelial cells of liver, lung, and colon. Bacteria were observed by electron microscopy in 5% of hepatic sinusoids. Administration of a specific paf antagonist, WEB 2086, failed to reduce severity of the observed lesions, indicating that it was not cytoprotective at the dosage used in this model of ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the effect of bilateral blockade of the pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve on soft palate function in horses.

Animals

5 Standardbreds.

Procedure

Peak tracheal inspiratory and expiratory pressures and airflow were measured while horses exercised at the speeds corresponding to 75 and 100% of the speed that resulted in maximal heart rate, with and without pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve blockade. Respiratory frequency-to-stride frequency coupling ratio was measured by correlating foot fall measurements with respiratory frequency. The pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve was blocked bilaterally as the nerve coursed through the auditory tube diverticulum (guttural pouch) across the longus capitus muscle.

Results

Persistent, reversible dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP) occurred in all horses after nerve blockade, and lasted from 1 to 3 hours; normal nasopharyngeal function returned within 3 hours. Compared with control values, peak expiratory tracheal pressure increased (P = 0.001), expiratory impedance increased (P = 0.007), and minute ventilation decreased (P = 0.04). Respiratory frequency-to-stride frequency coupling ratio decreased (P = 0.009) so that horses took 1 breath/stride without the nerve block and, approximately, 1 breath/2 strides with the block.

Conclusion

DDSP creates flow-limiting expiratory obstruction and may be caused by neuromuscular dysfunction involving the pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve. It may alter performance by causing expiratory obstruction and by altering breathing strategy in horses.

Clinical Relevance

A repeatable, reversible model of DDSP exists that allows further study of the disease. Dysfunction of the neuromuscular group, pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve and palatinus and palatopharyngeus muscles, may be implicated in the pathogenesis of clinical DDSP. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:504–508)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Flow-volume loops generated from 6 Standardbreds at rest and during treadmill exercise were evaluated for their use in detecting upper airway obstruction. Tidal breathing flow-volume loops (tbfvl) were obtained from horses at rest and exercising at speeds corresponding to 75% of maximal heart rate and at maximal heart rate. The tbfvl were evaluated, using a pulmonary function computer; calculated indices describing airflow rate and expiratory-to-inspiratory airflow ratio for individual loops were determined. In addition to tbfvl indices, standard variables of upper airway function also were measured: peak airflow, peak pressure, and calculated inspiratory and expiratory impedances. Measurements were recorded before left recurrent laryngeal neurectomy (lrln; baseline) and 14 days after surgically induced left laryngeal hemiplegia.

When horses were at rest, tbfvl shape and indices describing the loop were highly variable. In contrast, in exercising horses, tbfvl shape was consistent and coefficients of variation of loop indices were less during exercise than at rest. After lrln, tbfvl from exercising horses indicated marked inspiratory airflow limitation, while the expiratory airflow curve was preserved. Peak inspiratory flow rate and inspiratory flow at 50 and 25% of tidal volume decreased, and the ratio of peak expiratory to inspiratory airflow and that of midtidal volume expiratory and inspiratory airflow rates increased significantly (P < 0.05). Inspiratory impedance also increased after lrln.

Although in resting horses tbfvl were not a useful indicator of upper airway obstruction, examination of tbfvl from exercising horses allowed objective, specific, and repeatable detection of upper airway obstruction. The technique was noninvasive, rapid, and well tolerated by horses; thus, it is a potentially valuable clinical diagnostic test.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Effects of 1 hour of colonic volvulus and 3 hours of reperfusion on concentrations of thromboxane (txb 2) and prostacyclin (6-keto-PGF) in portal, pulmonary arterial, and jugular blood were determined by radioimmunoassay to assess the site of production and clearance of these eicosanoids from the circulation in 5 anesthetized ponies. Colonic volvulus had no significant effect on mean arterial pressure or txb 2 concentrations, but significantly (P < 0.05) increased 6-keto-PGF concentrations in all blood samples. Immediately after colonic reperfusion, all eicosanoid concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) increased. Then, txb 2 returned to baseline values, whereas 6-keto-PGF concentrations remained significantly (P < 0.05) high for the remainder of the study. Eicosanoid concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) greater in portal blood than in pulmonary arterial and jugular blood samples at all periods. This suggests that the splanchnic circulation is the primary site of eicosanoid production during and after colonic volvulus and the liver appears to provide most of the circulatory clearance of thromboxane and prostacyclin.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Large colon torsion frequently is a fatal condition in horses. The purpose of the study reported here was to determine systemic arterial pressure, plasma eicosanoid concentrations, colonic blood flow, vascular resistance, tissue pH, and morphologic features associated with large colon torsion and detorsion, and to evaluate the effects of sodium heparin (80 IU/kg of body weight, iv) treatment on these values. Values were determined in 20 anesthetized ponies that were randomly assigned into 4 equal groups: control; control/heparin; torsion; torsion/heparin. Torsions were created by a 720° rotation of the cecum and colon around their long axes at the sternal and diaphragmatic flexures. After 1 hour of torsion, the torsion was corrected and the colon was allowed to reperfuse for 1 hour. Heparin was administered 30 minutes into the experiment. Parametric data were analyzed (P ≤ 0.05), using split-plot analysis of variance, with differences between means evaluated with a modified Bonferroni t test; histopathologic data were analyzed (P ≤ 0.05) with a Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks. Heparin prevented colonic detorsion-induced hypotension and increases in vascular resistance and thromboxane concentration, and it significantly increased colonic blood flow for 40 minutes during reperfusion. Heparin did not alter prostacyclin concentration or the histologic appearance of the large colon.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To compare tracheal and pharyngeal inspiratory and expiratory pressures achieved during 60 seconds of nasal occlusion in standing horses with pressures achieved in horses during intense exercise.

Animals

5 Standardbreds.

Procedure

Tracheal and pharyngeal inspiratory and expiratory pressures were obtained from 5 horses during 60 seconds of nasal occlusion and compared with tracheal and pharyngeal pressures achieved during incremental treadmill exercise tests in which horses ran at 50, 75, and 100% of the speed that resulted in maximal heart rate ( HRmax)

Results

Significant difference was not detected between peak tracheal inspiratory pressure during nasal occlusion and peak tracheal inspiratory pressure at HRmax. Peak pharyngeal inspiratory pressure was sig nificantly more negative, and peak tracheal and peak pharyngeal expiratory pressures were sig nificantly more positive during 60 seconds of nasal occlusion than those observed in horses running at HRmax.

Conclusion

During upper airway endoscopy in standing horses, 60-second nasal occlusion induced tracheal and pharyngeal inspiratory pressures that equaled or exceeded pressures achieved during high-intensity exercise.

Clinical Relevance

Nasal occlusion is useful to simulate upper airway pressures achieved during high-intensity exercise. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1258–1260)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Motion of 6 clinically sound horses trotting at a speed of 4 m/s on a treadmill was captured by video cameras before and 9, 16, and 23 days after amphotericin-induced lameness to determine the quantitative variables of three-dimensional computer-assisted image analysis that objectively describe carpal lameness. Amphotericin-B was used to induce lameness, and phenylbutazone (2.2 mg/kg of body weight, PO, once) and butorphanol tartrate (0.1 mg/kg im, q 6 h, to effect) were used to control discomfort. Four 60Hz cameras were symmetrically placed around the treadmill to capture 6 seconds of images from retro-reflective spheres taped to the trotting horses. Images were transferred to a video-based digitizer and a computer work station, where 4 files of two-dimensional data were reduced to 1 file of three-dimensional data. The effect of lameness on motion analyzed was assessed by use of two-way ANOVA. Differences between means were assessed, using the Student-Newman-Keul’s test (P ≤ 0.05).

Head and withers excursions, (dorsal vertical displacement of head and withers targets, respectively) during the sound forelimb support phase were increased significantly during all lameness measurement periods. Head excursion, but not withers excursion, during the lame forelimb support phase, was decreased significantly during all lameness measurement periods. Computer determinations of stride length swing phase, stance phase, forelimb abduction, and carpal and fetlock ranges of motion did not consistently characterize the lameness. It was concluded that three-dimensional computer-assisted image analysis could be used for objective lameness evaluation in horses and that head and withers excursions were the most consistent variables for assessing equine carpal lameness.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

In this double-blind study, the effectiveness of and dose response to intra-articular administration of modified hyaluronan (hylan) was determined in an equine carpal lameness model over a 23-day period, using a computerized three-dimensional motion analysis system, synovial fluid variables, and synovial histologic examination.

In 24 clinically sound horses, baseline motion data was acquired from horses trotting at 4 m/s on a high-speed treadmill. Then, to induce lameness, 25 mg of amphotericin B in 5 ml of sterile water was injected into the left middle carpal joint of each horse every other day for 3 treatments. Phenybutazone (2.2 mg/kg of body weight, PO, once) and butorphanol tartrate (0.1 mg/kg, IM, q 6 h, for 36 hours) were used to control signs of discomfort. Horses were assigned at random to 4 equal groups and received intracarpal administration of either 1, 2, 4 ml of hylan (8 mg/ml), or 2 ml of balanced electrolyte solution (control).

Intracarpal administration of amphotericin B caused significant (P ≤ 0.01) increase in subjective lameness grades over the 2-week evaluation period, and hylan administration did not significantly (P ≤ 0.01) change the subjective lameness grade. Lameness induction caused significant (P ≤ 0.01) decrease in head and withers excursions during the lame forelimb support phase and significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in head and withers excursions during the sound forelimb support phase. Synovitis induction was further characterized by significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in total wbc, polymorphonuclear, and large and small mononuclear cell numbers, and synovial fluid total protein concentrations. Also, subjective scores for synovial sections were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different from baseline values, but hylan treatment at the 1-, 2-, or 4-ml dose did not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) alter these variables, compared with baseline values or values in control horses. Hyaluronan concentrations were not altered by induction of synovitis or hylan treatment.

Although clinical use of hyaluronan for treatment of traumatic joint disease in horses is well accepted, the beneficial effect of hylan was not detectable in this study. Further studies are required to more fully characterize the possible beneficial effects of hyaluronan-based products for treatment of joint disease in equids.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research