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To examine, in horses, the disposition and excretion of the active metabolite 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6MNA) of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory prodrug nabumetone.


Pharmacokinetic analysis of 6MNA after oral administration of nabumetone and IV administration of 6MNA.


Using a crossover design, 5 horses were orally administered 3.7 mg of nabumetone/kg of body weight. After a 3-week washout period, 4 horses were administered 2.5 mg of 6MNA/kg, IV.


Absorption of nabumetone from the gastrointestinal tract and its metabolism to 6MNA had a median appearance half-life of 0.88 hour. The elimination half-life was 11 hours. Area under the plasma concentration time curve for 6MNA after oral administration of nabumetone was 120.6 mg/h/L. A dose of 2.5 mg/kg of 6MNA administered IV resulted in plasma concentration nearly equivalent to that induced by the orally administered dose. Disposition of 6MNA was modeled as a one-compartment, first-order elimination. The area under the plasma concentration time curve for IV administration of 6MNA was 117.0 mg/h/L, and the specific volume of distribution was 0.247 L/kg. The distribution half-life and the elimination half-life were 0.56 and 7.90 hours, respectively. Percentage of total dose recovered in urine for the 36-hour collection period after the oral and IV administrations was 7.4 and 5.3%, respectively.


Metabolism of nabumetone to 6MNA, as reported in other species, also occurs in horses. There were a number of additional metabolites of nabumetone in urine that could not be fully identified and characterized. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:517–521)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate a combination of 2 nonantibiotic microbicide compounds, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), as a treatment to suppress or eliminate Salmonella spp from red-eared slider (RES) turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) eggs and hatchlings.

Sample Population—2,738 eggs from 8 turtle farms in Louisiana.

Procedures—Eggs were randomly sorted into 3 or, when sufficient eggs were available, 4 treatment groups as follows: control, pressure-differential egg treatment with NaOCl and gentamicin, NaOCl and PHMB bath treatment, and pressure-differential egg treatment with NaOCl and PHMB. Bacterial cultures were performed from specimens of eggs and hatchlings and evaluated for Salmonella spp.

Results—RES turtle eggs treated with NaOCl and PHMB as a bath (odds ratio [OR], 0.2 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.1 to 0.3]) or as a pressure-differential dip (OR, 0.01 [95% CI, 0.001 to 0.07]) or with gentamicin as a pressure-differential dip (OR, 0.1 [95% CI, 0.06 to 0.2]) were significantly less likely to have Salmonella-positive culture results than control-group eggs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Concern over reptile-associated salmonellosis in children in the United States is so great that federal regulations prohibit the sale of turtles that are < 10.2 cm in length. Currently, turtle farms treat eggs with gentamicin solution. Although this has reduced Salmonella shedding, it has also resulted in antimicrobial resistance. Results of our study indicate that a combination of NaOCl and PHMB may be used to suppress or eliminate Salmonella spp on RES turtle eggs and in hatchlings.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To investigate the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl administered transdermally and IV in sheep.

Animals—21 adult female sheep.

Procedures—Fentanyl was administered IV to 6 healthy sheep. Transdermal fentanyl patches (TFPs) were applied to 15 sheep 12 hours prior to general anesthesia and surgery. Seria blood samples were collected for 18 hours after IV injection and 84 hours after TFP application. Fentanyl concentrations were quantified via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic values were estimated.

Results—All sheep completed the study without complications. Following a dose of 2.5g/kg administered IV, the half-life was 3.08 hours (range, 2.20 to 3.36 hours), volume of distribution at steady state was 8.86 L/kg (range, 5.55 to 15.04 L/kg), and systemic clearance was 3.62 L/kg/h (range, 2.51 to 5.39 L/kg/h). The TFPs were applied at a mean dose of 2.05 g/kg/h. Time to maximum plasma concentration and maximal concentration were 12 hours (range, 4 to 24 hours) and 1.30 ng/mL (range, 0.62 to 2.73 ng/mL), respectively. Fentanyl concentrations were maintained at > 0.5 ng/mL for 40 hours after TFP application.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of fentanyl resulted in a short half-life. Application of a TFP resulted in stable blood fentanyl concentrations in sheep. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1127—1132)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research