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SUMMARY

Four groups of 18 beef calves each were used to evaluate effects of different treatments on parasite control and weight gains. The investigation extended from November 1986 (weaning) to October 1987. Group-1 calves were treated with ivermectin (200 μg/kg of body weight, SC) at approximately 6-week intervals for a total of 8 treatments; group-2 calves were given the same dosage of ivermectin by the same route of administration as group-1 calves in November, March, and July; group-3 calves were given fenbendazole paste (5 mg/kg, po) at the same times as group-2 calves; and group-4 calves served as untreated controls with provision for ivermectin salvage treatment. All groups grazed on individual pairs of larval-contaminated, 1.6-ha pastures. Highest (P < 0.05) initial worm counts in fall tracer calves were found in group 3 (Ostertagia ostertagi and Trichostrongylus axei adults) and group 4 (O ostertagi and Haemonchus adults). Fecal egg counts of group-1 calves were low throughout the experiment and pasture larval counts remained negligible after July. Egg counts and larval counts of other groups remained higher into summer. Worm counts, including O ostertagi inhibited early fourth-stage larvae (el 4), were highest (P < 0.05) in groups-3 and -4 spring tracer calves; numbers of O ostertagi el 4 were similarly high in groups 2, 3, and 4; and T axei counts were highest (P < 0.05) in groups-3 and -4 yearlings slaughtered in spring. Liveweights of group-1 calves were greater (P < 0.05) than in other groups from March 2 to October, and by July 2, group-2 calves had a liveweight advantage over group-4 calves. Group- 3 calves had the lowest rate of gain from March to July and mean liveweight of the group was less (P < 0.05) than in all other groups from April to October. Only minimal worm numbers were recovered from groups-1 or -2 calves in October. Large numbers of O ostertagi and T axei were recovered from group-4 calves and O ostertagi from group-3 calves. A few calves in groups 3 and 4, but particularly in group 4, were affected by type-II disease (chronic to acute gastritis caused by maturation and emergence of previously inhibited larvae) from August to October. Final mean liveweights in descending order were 365 kg in group 1, 328 kg in group 2, 316 kg in group and 281 kg in group 3.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate SC administration of 2 sedation protocols, ketamine-midazolam (KM) and alfaxalone-midazolam (AM), in African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

ANIMALS

9 healthy adult hedgehogs (5 males, 4 females).

PROCEDURES

A randomized, blinded, complete crossover study was performed. Sedation was induced by SC administration of either ketamine (30 mg/kg [14 mg/lb]) with midazolam (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb]) or alfaxalone (3 mg/kg [1.4 mg/lb]) with midazolam (1 mg/kg), including a 2-week washout period between treatments. Flumazenil (0.05 mg/kg [0.02 mg/lb], SC) was administered 45 minutes after administration of either protocol to reverse the effects of midazolam. Physiologic variables, reflexes, and behaviors were monitored. Food intake and body weight were measured before and after sedation.

RESULTS

Deep sedation characterized by complete loss of the righting reflex, decreased jaw tone, decreased pelvic limb withdrawal reflex, and preservation of the palpebral reflex was produced in 7 of 9 hedgehogs after KM administration and all 9 hedgehogs after AM administration. Mean ± SD time to loss of righting reflex was 6.4 ± 2.4 minutes after KM administration and 10 ± 4.0 minutes after AM administration. Following flumazenil administration, no significant difference was found in recovery time between sedation with KM (18.8 ± 12.7 minutes) and AM (14.4 ± 7.8 minutes). No significant differences were found in respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, or body temperature between protocols, whereas heart rate was higher for sedation with KM. Both sedation protocols resulted in a transient reduction in food intake.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Subcutaneous administration of KM and AM provided deep sedation that might be useful to facilitate routine, noninvasive procedures in hedgehogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects at the injection site of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) following IM administration of 1 dose to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

ANIMALS 7 adult nonreleasable healthy red-tailed hawks.

PROCEDURES In a randomized crossover study, CCFA (10 or 20 mg/kg) was administered IM to each hawk and blood samples were obtained. After a 2-month washout period, administration was repeated with the opposite dose. Muscle biopsy specimens were collected from the injection site 10 days after each sample collection period. Pharmacokinetic data were calculated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur for various bacterial isolates were assessed.

RESULTS Mean peak plasma concentrations of ceftiofur-free acid equivalent were 6.8 and 15.1 μg/mL for the 10 and 20 mg/kg doses, respectively. Mean times to maximum plasma concentration were 6.4 and 6.7 hours, and mean terminal half-lives were 29 and 50 hours, respectively. Little to no muscle inflammation was identified. On the basis of a target MIC of 1 μg/mL and target plasma ceftiofur concentration of 4 μg/mL, dose administration frequencies for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms were estimated as every 36 and 45 hours for the 10 mg/kg dose and every 96 and 120 hours for the 20 mg/kg dose, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Study results suggested that CCFA could be administered IM to red-tailed hawks at 10 or 20 mg/kg to treat infections with ceftiofur-susceptible bacteria. Administration resulted in little to no inflammation at the injection site. Additional studies are needed to evaluate effects of repeated CCFA administration.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Six horses received intra-articular injections of a mixture of 1 μg of endotoxin/5 mg of equine tumor necrosis factor (eqTNF) monoclonal antibody in 1 antebrachiocarpal joint and an equal volume (2 ml) of 1 μg of endotoxin/5 mg of control antibody in the opposite joint. Synovial fluid sample collection (1 ml) was accomplished by use of an indwelling, intra-articular catheter at postinjection hours (pih) 0, 1, 1.5, 2, 5, and 8, and by arthrocentesis at pih 24. Joint fluid samples were analyzed for nucleated cell count, protein concentration, and tnf, interleukin 6 (il-6), il-1, and il-1-inhibitory activities. To monitor local inflammation, each carpus was graded semiquantitatively for swelling prior to each sample collection.

Tumor necrosis factor, il-1, or il-1-inhibitory activity was not detected in any synovial fluid sample collected before endotoxin/antibody was administered. However, low il-6 activity (< 100 U/ml) was found in 2 of 12 preinjection samples. In joints injected with endotoxin/control antibody mixture, maximal mean ± sem activities for tnf (1,019 ± 310 U/ml), il-1 (173 ± 102 U/ml), and il-6 (10.8 ± 3.1 × 104 U/ml) were observed at pih 2, 5, and 8, respectively. Tumor necrosis factor and il-1 activities returned to baseline values by pih 8 and 24, respectively; however, il-6 activity remained high. Interleukin 1-inhibitory activity (27.4 ± 2.25 IU/ml) was detected in all pih-24 samples from control joints, but was not detected at any other time in control joints (limit of detection, 20 IU/ml).

Tumor necrosis factor activity was not detected in any synovial fluid sample from joints treated with endotoxin/eqTNF antibody. In contrast, endotoxin-induced mean synovial il-1 and il-6 activities were not reduced significantly by eqTNF antibody. Mean il-1-inhibitory activity (pih 24) was higher in eqTNF antibody-treated joints (41.0 ± 7.7 IU/ml) than in control joints, but the difference was not significant. Mean wbc count and protein concentration in control and treated joints were maximal at pih 8. The curves for mean values of wbc count and total protein concentration were not significantly different in treated versus control joints. Swelling in each treated joint was either less than or the same as that in the opposite control joint at every time in the initial 8 pih. There was significant (P = 0.043) difference between treated and control joints at pih 5 and 8. These results describe a profile of synovial fluid tnf, il-1, il-6 bioactivities, and il-1-inhibitory activity during the initial 24 hours of synovitis induced by intra-articular administration of endotoxin in horses. Our eqTNF monoclonal antibody was effective in neutralizing tnf activity in synovial fluid when administered intra-articularly with endotoxin in horses. The induction of il-1, il-1-inhibitory activity, il-6, wbc, and total protein concentration responses are largely independent of tnf activity in synovial fluid of horses receiving endotoxin intra-articularly.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate immune responses induced by administration of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin to pigs.

Animals—60 healthy 7- to 10-day-old cross-bred boars.

Procedure—Pigs were assigned to 1 of 4 pig groups (15 pigs/group): vaccinated, challenged; vaccinated, nonchallenged; nonvaccinated, challenged; nonvaccinated, nonchallenged. Vaccinated pigs received IM injections of a mycoplasma bacterin on days 0 and 14, whereas nonvaccinated pigs received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Pigs in the challenged groups were inoculated intratracheally with M hyopneumoniae on day 42. Pigs were euthanatized and necropsied 41, 44, 48, and 70 days after the first vaccination, and proportion of lung surface with pneumonic lesions was determined. Percentage of lymphocyte subpopulations and number of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secreting lymphocytes in blood and tissues, cytokine and antibody concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and serum antibody concentrations were determined.

Results—Vaccination against and infection with M hyopneumoniae induced a local mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract of pigs. Proportion of lung surface with pneumonic lesions in vaccinated challenged pigs was reduced on day 70, compared with nonvaccinated challenged pigs. Vaccination stimulated the production of M hyopneumoniae-specific IFN-γ secreting blood lymphocytes. Tumor necrosis factor-α concentration in BAL fluid on day 70 was increased in nonvaccinated challenged pigs, compared with vaccinated challenged pigs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vaccination against M hyopneumoniae induced local, mucosal, humoral, and cellular immune responses. Moreover, vaccination reduced the severity of lung lesions in challenged pigs, suggesting that mucosal antibodies, mediation of the inflammatory response, and cellmediated immune responses are important for control of mycoplasmal pneumonia in pigs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1384–1389)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the stability and distribution of voriconazole in 2 extemporaneously prepared (compounded) suspensions stored for 30 days at 2 temperatures.

Sample Population—Voriconazole suspensions (40 mg/mL) compounded from commercially available 200-mg tablets suspended in 1 of 2 vehicles. One vehicle contained a commercially available suspending agent and a sweetening syrup in a 1:1 mixture (SASS). The other vehicle contained the suspending agent with deionized water in a 3:1 mixture (SADI).

Procedures—Voriconazole suspensions (40 mg/mL in 40-mL volumes) were compounded on day 0 and stored at room temperature (approx 21°C) or refrigerated (approx 5°C). To evaluate distribution, room-temperature aliquots of voriconazole were measured immediately after preparation. Refrigerated aliquots were measured after 3 hours of refrigeration. To evaluate stability, aliquots from each suspension were measured at approximately 7-day intervals for up to 30 days. Voriconazole concentration, color, odor, opacity, and pH were measured, and aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were performed at various points.

Results—Drug distribution was uniform (coefficient of variation, < 5%) in both suspensions. On day 0, 87.8% to 93.0% of voriconazole was recovered; percentage recovery increased to between 95.1% and 100.8% by day 7. On subsequent days, up to day 30, percentage recovery was stable (> 90%) for all suspensions. The pH of each suspension did not differ significantly throughout the 30-day period. Storage temperature did not affect drug concentrations at any time, nor was bacterial growth obtained.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Extemporaneously prepared voriconazole in SASS and SADI resulted in suspensions that remained stable for at least 30 days. Refrigerated versus room-temperature storage of the suspensions had no effect on drug stability.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine induction doses, anesthetic constant rate infusions (CRI), and cardiopulmonary effects of propofol in red-tailed hawks and great horned owls and propofol pharmacokinetics in the owls during CRI.

Animals—6 red-tailed hawks and 6 great horned owls.

Procedure—The CRI dose necessary for a loss of withdrawal reflex was determined via specific stimuli. Anesthesia was induced by IV administration of propofol (1 mg/kg/min) and maintained by CRI at the predetermined dose for 30 minutes. Heart and respiratory rates, arterial blood pressures, and blood gas tensions were obtained in awake birds and at various times after induction. End-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) concentration and esophageal temperature were obtained after induction. Propofol plasma concentrations were obtained after induction and after completion of the CRI in the owls. Recovery times were recorded.

Results—Mean ± SD doses for induction and CRI were 4.48 ± 1.09 mg/kg and 0.48 ± 0.06 mg/kg/min, respectively, for hawks and 3.36 ± 0.71 mg/kg and 0.56 ± 0.15 mg/kg/min, respectively, for owls. Significant increases in PaCO2, HCO3, and ETCO2 in hawks and owls and significant decreases in arterial pH in hawks were detected. A 2-compartment model best described the owl pharmacodynamic data. Recovery times after infusion were prolonged and varied widely. Central nervous system excitatory signs were observed during recovery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Effects on blood pressure were minimal, but effective ventilation was reduced, suggesting the need for careful monitoring during anesthesia. Prolonged recovery periods with moderate-to-severe excitatory CNS signs may occur in these species at these doses. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:677–683)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine historical, physical examination, hematologic, and serologic findings in dogs with Ehrlichia ewingii infection.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—15 dogs.

Procedure—In all dogs, infection with E ewingii was confirmed with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Follow-up information and clarification of information recorded in the medical records was obtained by telephone interviews and facsimile correspondence with referring veterinarians and owners.

Results—Fever and lameness were the most common findings with each occurring in 8 dogs. Five dogs had neurologic abnormalities including ataxia, paresis, proprioceptive deficits, anisocoria, intention tremor, and head tilt. Neutrophilic polyarthritis was identified in 4 dogs. No clinical signs were reported in 3 dogs. The predominant hematologic abnormality was thrombocytopenia, which was identified in all 12 dogs for which a platelet count was available. Reactive lymphocytes were seen in 5 of 13 dogs. Concurrent infection with another rickettsial organism was identified in 4 dogs. Of the 13 dogs tested, 7 were seroreactive to E canis antigens. Morulae consistent with E ewingii infection were identified in neutrophils in 8 dogs. Treatment with doxycycline, with or without prednisone, resulted in a rapid, favorable clinical response in the 9 dogs for which follow-up information was available.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that PCR testing for E ewingii infection should be considered in dogs with fever, neutrophilic polyarthritis, unexplained ataxia or paresis, thrombocytopenia, or unexplained reactive lymphocytes, and in dogs with clinical signs suggestive of ehrlichiosis that are seronegative for E canis. Following treatment with doxycycline, the prognosis for recovery is good. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1102–1107)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

An 8-year-old sexually intact female eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) with a 4-day history of hyporexia and lethargy and a 1-day history of tenesmus was examined.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Severe leukocytosis characterized by severe heterophilia and moderate monocytosis was present. Marked dilation of the proventriculus and ventriculus and ascites were identified by means of radiography, coelomic ultrasonography, and contrast-enhanced CT, with no clinically relevant motility noted on ultrasonography. Results of coelomic fluid analysis were consistent with pyogranulomatous effusion. Endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract following proventricular and ventricular lavage showed a thick caseous plaque occupying 30% of the caudal proventricular mucosa. Abundant yeast organisms were evident during cytologic examination of a proventricular and ventricular wash sample, and fecal culture yielded Candida glabrata.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

The bird was treated with SC fluids, assisted feedings, nystatin, fluconazole, amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin, gastroprotectants, maropitant, and analgesics and slowly improved during hospitalization. A marked decrease in proventricular dilation was evident on serial radiographs obtained over a 12-month period. One year after diagnosis, the bird was presented with a 1-week history of hyporexia and lethargy, and fecal culture grew C glabrata. Antifungal treatment was resumed for 3 months. The bird had no clinical signs of infection 16 months after this recurrence, and subsequent fecal cultures were negative for fungal growth.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings illustrate the importance of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in diagnosing proventricular and ventricular dilation in birds and emphasize the need for long-term antifungal treatment and monitoring in birds with fungal infections.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association