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  • Author or Editor: J. A. Flanders x
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SUMMARY

A radioimmunoassay for measurement of midmolecule parathyroid hormone (pth) concentration in serum from dogs was validated for use on serum from cats. The assay detected an increase in serum concentration of pth after iv infusion of Na2 edta in healthy cats. Infusion of calcium chloride caused a decrease in measured pth. Accuracy of the assay was demonstrated by quantitative recovery of a feline parathyroid gland extract added to pooled feline sera. Mean interassay and intra-assay coefficients of variation were 0.13 and 0.07, respectively. Sensitivity of the assay was 0.1 ng of pth/ml. The median pth concentration measured in 40 adult cats was 3.5 ng/ml, with a range of 1.16 to 11.0 ng/ml.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The ability of ectopic parathyroid tissue to support calcium homeostasis was evaluated by measuring serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, albumin, magnesium, and parathyroid hormone before and for 12 weeks after bilateral thyroparathyroidectomy in 14 cats. During the immediate postoperative period, significant decrease was observed in serum calcium, magnesium, and parathyroid hormone (pth) concentrations. Serum pth concentration remained subnormal and did not significantly increase during the 12-week observation period. Despite persistent hypoparathyroidism, serum calcium and magnesium concentrations gradually increased. Ectopic parathyroid tissue is not capable of maintaining normal serum calcium concentration immediately after thyroparathyroidectomy. Serum calcium concentration gradually normalizes after thyroparathyroidectomy, apparently by means of a pth-independent mechanism.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To quantify the relative risk of intestinal dehiscence in dogs undergoing intestinal resection and anastomosis (IRA), compared with enterotomy, for surgical management of small intestinal foreign bodies, and to evaluate the association between nasogastric tube placement for early enteral nutrition (EEN) and hospitalization time.

ANIMALS

211 dogs undergoing 227 surgeries for intestinal foreign body removal.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed for dogs undergoing a single-site sutured enterotomy or IRA for foreign body intestinal obstruction between May 2008 and April 2018. Multivariable logistic regression was used to quantify the association between surgical procedure and dehiscence. Multiple linear regression was used to quantify the association of nasogastric tube placement with total hospitalization time.

RESULTS

Dehiscence rates were 3.8% (7/183) and 18.2% (8/44) for enterotomy and IRA, respectively. Overall dehiscence rate for all surgeries was 6.6% (15/227). The odds of intestinal dehiscence for IRA were 6.09 times (95% CI, 1.89 to 19.58) the odds for enterotomy. An American Society of Anesthesiologists score > 3 (OR, 4.49; 95% CI, 1.43 to 14.11) and an older age (OR, 1.02 [95% CI, 1.01 to 1.02] for each 1-month increase in age) were significantly associated with greater odds of intestinal dehiscence, regardless of surgical procedure. Placement of a nasogastric tube was not associated with intestinal dehiscence or decreased total hospitalization time when controlling for the year of surgery.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Patients undergoing IRA were at a significantly higher risk of intestinal dehiscence, compared with patients undergoing enterotomy. Although this finding should not be used to recommend enterotomy over IRA, this information may be useful in guiding owner expectations and postoperative monitoring.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Adrenocortical tumors were diagnosed in 5 adult spayed ferrets. Four ferrets had bilaterally symmetrical alopecia of the caudal femoral region, abdomen, and tail, and 1 had alopecia of the distal limbs and feet. All 5 ferrets had vulvar swelling. During abdominal ultrasonography, irregular masses, believed to involve the adrenal glands, were seen in all 5 ferrets. Unilateral adrenalectomy was performed successfully in each ferret by use of ventral midline celiotomy. On histologic examination of biopsy samples, 4 ferrets were found to have adrenocortical adenomas, and 1 ferret was found to have an adrenocortical adenocarcinoma. All clinical signs resolved after adrenalectomy, suggesting that the adrenocortical tumors had been secreting adrenocortical hormones.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—An 8-year-old male red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) was evaluated with a 2-week history of vomiting and anorexia. Four days prior, the patient became refractory to medical management. The kangaroo was admitted for diagnostic testing and treatment including whole body CT, blood work, and emergency laparotomy.

Clinical Findings—CT findings of a severely enlarged stomach, splenic displacement, and a whirl sign were indicative of mesenteric volvulus with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV). Contrast enhancement of abdominal viscera suggested intact arterial blood supply; however, compression of the caudal vena cava and portal vein indicated venous obstruction. Results of preoperative blood work suggested biliary stasis without evidence of inflammation. Additionally, a tooth root abscess was diagnosed on the basis of results of CT.

Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory laparotomy confirmed the diagnosis of mesenteric volvulus and GDV. The volvuli were corrected by clockwise derotation, and a gastropexy was performed. Tissue samples were obtained from the spleen and liver for evaluation. The kangaroo recovered from surgery, and the abscessed tooth was extracted 6 days later. Eight days after initial evaluation, the kangaroo was discharged.

Clinical Relevance—In the present report, the CT whirl sign was used to diagnose volvulus of the abdominal viscera, which suggests that this diagnostic indicator has utility in veterinary patients. Mesenteric volvulus with GDV was successfully treated in a nondomestic species. The tooth root abscess, a common condition in macropods, may explain the historic episodes of anorexia reported by the owner and may have contributed to the development of mesenteric volvulus and GDV in this kangaroo.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Objectives

To compare the dose-sparing effect of medetomidine on the propofol induction dose and concentration of halothane for maintenance of anesthesia during laparoscopy and to provide guidelines for effective and safe use of these anesthetics in dogs to ensure desirable perioperative analgesia.

Animals

14 purpose-bred dogs.

Procedure

Cardiopulmonary and electroencephalographic responses were determined during 2 anesthesia protocols in dogs scheduled for laparoscopy. Fifteen minutes before anesthesia induction, all dogs received atropine sulfate (0.02 mg/kg of body weight, IM). Seven dogs were then given propofol (6.6 mg/kg, IV); anesthesia was maintained with halothane in oxygen. The other dogs were given medetomidine hydrochloride (10 μg/kg, IM) 5 minutes after administration of atropine sulfate; anesthesia was then induced by administration of propofol (2.8 mg/kg, IV) and was maintained with halothane in oxygen.

Results

The halothane concentration required for laparoscopy was lower in dogs given medetomidine. Anesthetic requirements were significantly increased during abdominal manipulation in both groups. Total amplitude of the electroencephalograph in medetomidine-treated dogs was not significantly lower than that in dogs not given medetomidine. Pulmonary responses were stable throughout all procedures. The primary cardiovascular response was an increase in blood pressure associated with the medetomidine-atropine preanesthetic combination. Significant differences in total amplitude or frequency shifts (spectral edge) of brain wave activity were not associated with surgical stimulation.

Conclusion

Lack of neurologic changes during laparoscopy supports the efficacy of either medetomidine-propofol-halothane or propofol-halothane combinations at higher concentrations to provide desirable analgesia and anesthesia in this group of dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1443–1450)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research