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  • Author or Editor: J. A. Eurell x
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To determine effect of electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on rate and degree of return to function of the limb and development of degenerative joint disease (DJD) after surgical creation and subsequent stabilization of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifle.


12 clinically normal adult large (19.5 to 31.5 kg) dogs.


Dogs were anesthetized, and the right CrCL was severed via arthrotomy, destabilizing the stifle. After 3 weeks, the stifle was surgically stabilized. Three weeks later, 6 dogs were subjected to an EMS treatment protocol for the thigh muscles. At 5, 9, 13, and 19 weeks after stifle destabilization, treated (n = 6) and control (n = 6) dogs were evaluated for return of stifle function. Gross and histologic evaluations of the stifles were performed at 19 weeks after stifle destabilization.


Treated dogs had significantly (P = 0.001) better lameness score than did control dogs. There was less palpable crepitation of the stifle in treated dogs (P = 0.06); treated dogs also had significantly (P = 0.01) fewer radiographic signs of bone changes. Thigh circumference was significantly (P = 0.02) larger in treated dogs.There was less gross cartilage damage (P = 0.07) in the EMS-treated dogs, but more medial meniscal damage (P = 0.058, cranial pole; P = 0.051, caudal pole).


Improved lameness scores, larger thigh circumference, and decreased radiographically apparent bony changes observed for the treated group of dogs support the hypothesis that dogs treated by EMS after surgical stabilization of the CrCL-deficient stifle had improved limb function, with less DJD, than did dogs treated with the currently accepted clinical protocol of cage rest and slow return to normal activity. However, results of force plate evaluation did not support the hypothesis. Increased meniscal damage in dogs treated by EMS may be cause for concern. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1473–1478)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine effects of sodium hyaluronate (HA) on corticosteroid-induced cartilage matrix catabolism in equine articular cartilage explants.

Sample Population—30 articular cartilage explants from fetlock joints of 5 adult horses without joint disease.

Procedure—Articular cartilage explants were treated with control medium or medium containing methylprednisolone acetate (MPA; 0.05, 0.5, or 5.0 mg/mL), HA (0.1, 1.0, or 1.5 mg/mL), or both. Proteoglycan (PG) synthesis was measured by incorporation of sulfur 35-labeled sodium sulphate into PGs, and PG degradation was measured by release of radiolabeled PGs into the medium. Total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in media and explants and total explant DNA were determined.

Results—Methylprednisolone acetate caused a decrease in PG synthesis, whereas HA had no effect. Only the combination of MPA at a concentration of 0.05 mg/mL and HA at a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL increased PG synthesis, compared with control explants. Methylprednisolone acetate increased degradation of newly synthesized PGs into the medium, compared with control explants, and HA alone had no effect. Hyaluronate had no effect on MPAinduced PG degradation and release into media. Neither MPA alone nor HA alone had an effect on total cartilage GAG content. Methylprednisolone acetate caused an increase in release of GAG into the medium at 48 and 72 hours after treatment. In combination, HA had no protective effect on MPA-induced GAG release into the medium. Total cartilage DNA content was not affected by treatments.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our results indicate that HA addition has little effect on corticosteroid- induced cartilage matrix PG catabolism in articular cartilage explants. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:48–53)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research