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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine effects of PCV on blood glucose (BG) concentration measurements obtained with a human portable blood glucometer (HPBG) and a veterinary portable blood glucometer (VPBG) on canine (cVPBG) and feline (fVPBG) settings (test methods) when used in rabbits and to develop correction formulas to mitigate effects of PCV on such measurements.

SAMPLE

48 resuspended blood samples with known PVCs (range, 0% [plasma] to 92% [plasma and packed RBCs]) from 6 healthy research rabbits (experimental sample set) and 252 historic measurements of BG concentration and PCV in 84 client-owned rabbits evaluated at a veterinary hospital (validation data set).

PROCEDURES

Duplicate measurements of BG concentration with each test method and of PCV were obtained for each sample in the experimental sample set, and the mean results for each variable for each test method and sample were compared with results from a clinical laboratory analyzer (reference method) used to determine the true BG concentration for each sample. Mean ± SD differences in measurements between the reference and test methods were calculated. Linear regression and modified Clarke error grid analysis were used to develop correction formulas for the test methods given known PCVs, and these formulas were evaluated on the validation data set with linear regression and a modified Clarke error grid.

RESULTS

Blood glucose concentrations were falsely low for cVPBG and fVPBG used on samples with PCV < 31% and were falsely high for all test methods used on samples with PCV > 43%. Compared with original measurements, formula-corrected measurements overall had better agreement with reference method measurements for the experimental sample set; however, only the formula-corrected HPBG measurements had improved agreement for the validation data set.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings indicated that, in rabbits, HPBG measurements had improved accuracy with the use of the correction formula HPBG measurement of BG concentration + ([0.75 × PCV] − 15); however, the correction formulas did not improve the accuracy of VPBG measurements, and we believe that neither the cVPBG nor fVPBG should be used in rabbits.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of IM administration of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) on plasma total thyroxine (T4) concentrations in euthyroid ferrets.

Design—Evaluation study.

Animals—25 healthy neutered ferrets (14 female and 11 male) of various ages from 2 populations (laboratory ferrets from Georgia and pet ferrets from Pennsylvania).

Procedures—Each ferret underwent a physical examination and standard hematologic testing to ensure it was healthy and had clinically normal thyroid function. Once determined to be euthyroid, ferrets received a single IM injection of 100 μg of rhTSH. Blood samples were collected into plasma-separator tubes immediately before the rhTSH injection (time 0) and 4 hours after injection to measure T4 concentrations.

Results—Males did not differ from females in regard to prestimulation or poststimulation plasma T4 concentrations; however, prestimulation and poststimulation T4 concentrations were significantly different between the 2 groups of ferrets. A significant difference was also identified between prestimulation T4 concentration (mean ± SD, 21.3 ± 6.1 nmol/L) and poststimulation T4 concentration (29.9 ± 8.2 nmol/L). All 25 ferrets had high poststimulation T4 concentrations (median difference, 7. 5 nmol/L; 10% to 90% interval, 3.26 to 17.70 nmol/L [0.25 to 1.38 μg/dL]; range, 2.50 to 20.70 nmol/L [0.19 to 1.61 μg/dL]); this represented a median increase in T4 concentration of 35% (10% to 90% interval, 18% to 81%; range, 8% to 126%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that rhTSH can be used for thyrotropin stimulation testing in ferrets when administered IM. According to the findings, a euthyroid ferret should have an increase of approximately 30% in plasma T4 concentration 4 hours after rhTSH injection.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of administration of recombinant human (rh) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) for evaluation of thyroid function in euthyroid guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

Design—Prospective, experimental study.

Animals—10 healthy, sexually intact, pet guinea pigs (approx 1 year of age).

Procedures—Guinea pigs were given rhTSH (100 μg, IM); plasma thyroxine concentrations were determined prior to and 3 and 4 hours after rhTSH injection. The animals were housed in 2 groups on the basis of sex and fed different commercial maintenance diets according to their husbandry.

Results—There was no significant difference in thyroxine concentrations between males and females before or after rhTSH injection. There was also no difference between thyroxine concentrations at 3 versus 4 hours after rhTSH injection. There was a significant difference between thyroxine concentrations before (median, 9.05 nmol/L [0.70 μg/dL]; 10% to 90% range, 7.39 to 16.99 nmol/L [0.57 to 1.32 μg/dL]) and after (mean ± SD, 23.95 ± 4.2 nmol/L) rhTSH injection. Euthyroid guinea pigs had plasma thyroxine concentrations of at least 7.30 nmol/L (0.57 μg/dL) and an increase of at least 2.6 times prestimulation thyroxine concentrations at 3 or 4 hours after stimulation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The results suggested that rhTSH administered IM can be used for the TSH stimulation testing in guinea pigs. We suggest thyroxine concentration in a euthyroid guinea pig should at least double 3 to 4 hours after rhTSH injection.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate diagnostic quality of liver percutaneous ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirates and laparoscopic biopsy specimens of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

Design—Prospective descriptive study.

Animals—7 healthy adult rabbits.

Procedures—3 to 5 liver fine-needle aspirates were obtained with a 22-gauge needle under ultrasound guidance in anesthetized rabbits. Liver biopsy specimens were also obtained with 1.7-mm (n = 2) or 3.0-mm (1) biopsy forceps by direct laparoscopic observation. Fine-needle aspirates were cytologically evaluated on a scale from 0 (suboptimal specimen) to 3 (optimal specimen) for cellularity, cell distribution, cell preservation, cell morphology, and blood contamination. Biopsy specimens were histologically evaluated on a scale from 0 (optimal specimen) to 5 (suboptimal specimen) for artifactual changes; numbers of portal triads and central veins were quantified.

Results—Aspirates were moderately to highly cellular (mean, 2.54) with good cell distribution (mean, 2.56), good cell preservation (mean, 2.20), and moderate blood contamination (mean, 1.04). The 1.7-mm biopsy specimens had a mean score of 1.3 for artifactual changes and contained a mean of 0.6 portal triads and 1.6 central veins/biopsy specimen. The 3.0-mm liver biopsy specimens had a mean score of 2.7 for artifactual changes, with a mean of 4.0 portal triads and 4.14 central veins/biopsy specimen. All but one 3.0-mm liver biopsy specimen had ≥ 1 portal triad suitable for histologic evaluation, and all had ≥ 1 central vein; in contrast, only half of the 1.7-mm liver biopsy specimens had a discernible portal triad or central vein.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For histologic evaluation, advantages of obtaining 3.0-mm liver biopsy specimens, compared with 1.7-mm liver biopsy specimens or fine-needle aspirates, should be considered in rabbits with suspected liver disease.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 4-year-old castrated male domestic ferret from central Massachusetts was evaluated for weight loss over a 1.5-month period and for 2 days of retching, diarrhea, and signs of lethargy. It had been housed indoors, with 2 other ferrets, 2 cats, and humans that lacked signs or symptoms of disease.

Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed a thin body condition, tachypnea, an increase in respiratory effort, and retching. Splenomegaly was detected during abdominal palpation. Clinicopathologic analysis revealed lymphopenia, lactic acidosis, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperglobulinemia. A pulmonary bronchointerstitial pattern was evident on radiographs, and abdominal ultrasonography revealed a suspected pancreatic mass and mesenteric lymphadenopathy.

Treatment and Outcome—After 2 weeks of medical treatment and once clinical signs resolved, an exploratory laparotomy was performed and a lymph node biopsy specimen was collected. Histologic evaluation of the specimen revealed Cryptococcus-like organisms. Antifungal treatment was initiated with itraconazole (PO) and amphotericin B (IV). The ferret died after 2 days of treatment. A full necropsy was performed, revealing multicentric cryptococcosis affecting the lungs, brain, spleen, and multiple lymph nodes. Paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed lung tissue was submitted for DNA extraction, and the organism was identified as Cryptococcus neoformans var grubii.

Clinical Relevance—To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of disseminated cryptococcosis in a North American ferret. This case is unique in that the ferret lived indoors, in a geographic region in which reports of cryptococcosis are rare. The genotyping technique used to identify the Cryptococcus strain can aid in better understanding the epidemiology of cryptococcosis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 0.65-kg (1.43-lb) 24-month-old sexually intact male albino pet rat was examined because of a 3-week history of hypodipsia, apparent blindness, and sudden change in behavior.

Clinical Findings—The rat was able to move around its cage but appeared unaware of its surroundings, was visually unresponsive, and seemed unusually aggressive. The rat's hind limbs appeared mildly paretic, and it had sporadic difficulty placing its hind limbs on a flat surface. Given the rat's age, history, and physical examination findings, the primary differential diagnosis was a pituitary tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the rat's brain was performed and revealed a large pituitary mass, which was indicative of a tumor.

Treatment and Outcome—Cabergoline (0.6 mg/kg [0.27 mg/lb], PO, q 72 h) was administered. On follow-up MRI 2 months later, the pituitary mass had substantially decreased in size. For 6 months following the second MRI study, the rat continued to receive the same dosage of cabergoline and had no clinical signs of disease or unusual behavior. However, at 8.5 months after the start of the treatment, the rat was in poor condition and had clinical signs similar to those initially. A third MRI study was performed and revealed substantial regrowth of the mass. The rat was euthanized and a necropsy was performed; a histopathologic diagnosis of pituitary adenoma was made.

Clinical Relevance—Pituitary adenomas have long been recognized as a common finding in geriatric rats (> 18 months old). Affected rats may respond favorably to oral administration of cabergoline.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 16-year-old female umbrella cockatoo (Cacatua alba) was referred to the University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine for evaluation of a 3-year seasonal history of lethargy and weight fluctuation.

Clinical Findings—Abnormalities detected via clinicopathologic analyses included mild leukocytosis, heterophilia, and lymphopenia consistent with a stress leukogram. Previous fecal examinations failed to diagnose enteric parasite infestation. Results of a fecal flotation test with Sheather sugar solution revealed spirurid eggs (Spiruroidea). Coelomic radiography revealed a widened cardiohepatic waist with increased soft tissue opacity at the level of the hepatic silhouette. The caudal thoracic and abdominal air sacs bilaterally appeared compressed against the coleomic wall. The proventriculus was increased in diameter, with a proventriculus-to-keel ratio of 1.0. Coelomic ultrasonography and positive-contrast upper gastrointestinal radiography revealed severe thickening and irregularity of the proventricular wall. The animal was anesthetized for an endoscopic examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Intralesional nematodes were identified on histologic examination of biopsy specimens from the proventriculus.

Treatment and Outcome—Effective fenbendazole treatment (15 mg/kg [6.8 mg/lb], PO, alternating between 5 days of treatment and 5 days of no treatment, which continued for 4 periods) was confirmed by repeated endoscopy and fecal examinations. The bird remained free of clinical signs 27 months after diagnosis and treatment.

Clinical Relevance—Antemortem diagnosis of proventricular nematodiasis has not been reported in psittacines. Spirurid nematode eggs are shed intermittently, which may lead to false-negative results on a single routine fecal examination. In this patient, radiography, endoscopy, and histologic evaluation facilitated antemortem diagnosis. This is the first report of successful treatment of this condition in psittacines.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare analgesic and gastrointestinal effects of lidocaine and buprenorphine administered to rabbits undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

ANIMALS Fourteen 12-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits.

PROCEDURES Rabbits were assigned to 2 treatment groups (7 rabbits/group). One group received buprenorphine (0.06 mg/kg, IV, q 8 h for 2 days), and the other received lidocaine (continuous rate infusion [CRI] at 100 μg/kg/min for 2 days). Variables, including food and water consumption, fecal output, glucose and cortisol concentrations, and behaviors while in exercise pens, were recorded.

RESULTS Rabbits receiving a lidocaine CRI had significantly higher gastrointestinal motility, food intake, and fecal output and significantly lower glucose concentrations, compared with results for rabbits receiving buprenorphine. Rabbits receiving lidocaine also had a higher number of normal behaviors (eg, sprawling, traveling, and frolicking) after surgery, compared with behaviors such as crouching and sitting that were seen more commonly in rabbits receiving buprenorphine. Both groups had significant weight loss after surgery. Pain scores did not differ significantly between treatment groups. Significant decreases in heart rate and respiratory rate were observed on the day of surgery, compared with values before and after surgery. Rabbits in the lidocaine group had significantly overall lower heart rates than did rabbits in the buprenorphine group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A CRI of lidocaine to rabbits provided better postoperative outcomes with respect to fecal output, food intake, and glucose concentrations. Thus, lidocaine appeared to be a suitable alternative to buprenorphine for alleviating postoperative pain with minimal risk of anorexia and gastrointestinal ileus.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research