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  • Author or Editor: J'mai M. Gayle x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe the clinical findings in horses with small intestinal strangulation through mesenteric rents, and to determine the recurrence and survival rates after surgery.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—15 horses with small intestinal obstruction via a mesenteric rent.

Procedure—Medical records of horses with obstruction of the small intestine via a mesenteric rent between January 1990 and December 1997 were reviewed. The signalment, history, initial physical examination findings, results of abdominocentesis, and clinical laboratory values were recorded. Surgical findings, including location of the mesenteric rent and surgical procedure performed, were recorded. Shortand long-term survival rates were calculated.

Results—Most mesenteric rents were located in the mesentery of the small intestine (13 horses). Two horses had multiple mesenteric defects. Seven horses were euthanatized at surgery because of an inability to reduce the entrapped intestine (3 horses), uncontrollable hemorrhage (2), inability to close the rent (1), and the amount of compromised intestine involved (1). Seven horses required intestinal resection and anastomosis. The median length of intestine resected was 2.6 m (range, 0.6 to 4.5 m). The mesenteric rents created during resection were not closed in 2 horses. One of these 2 horses subsequently developed a strangulating obstruction through the open rent.

Seven of 15 horses in our study were discharged from the hospital (ie, short-term survival rate of 47% [7/15]). Long-term follow-up information was available for 5 of the 7 horses (follow-up duration of 5 months to 9 years), of which 2 died as a result of colic, and 1 horse was euthanatized because of severe arthritis (ie, long-term survival rate of 40% [2/5]).

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Inability to reduce the intestinal obstruction, severe hemorrhage from the mesentery, and the length of intestine involved are the main factors that decrease survival rates in horses with small intestinal strangulation caused by mesenteric rents. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1446–1449).

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Investigate long-term complications, survival times, general health and quality of life (QoL) outcomes, and longevity in female dogs and cats (bitches and queens, respectively) following hospital discharge after ovariohysterectomy (OHE) for pyometra.

ANIMALS

306 pet-owner–completed surveys and corresponding medical records for 234 bitches and 72 queens treated with OHE for pyometra at the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Animal Hospital between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2019.

PROCEDURES

A telephone and online survey was conducted to gather data about pet owners’ perception of pet health and QoL following OHE for pyometra, and potential associations between survey results and medical record data were evaluated. Median survival time at a given age at OHE for pyometra was calculated with the use of maximum likelihood estimation of a survival-time regression model.

RESULTS

72 of the 121 (60%) eligible owners of queens and 234 of the 390 (60%) eligible owners of bitches completed the survey. Most owners reported that at the time of the survey, their pet’s health and QoL were better or the same as before pyometra. Reported health and QoL outcomes were similar for pets > 8 versus ≤ 8 years of age.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Our findings indicated that bitches and queens undergoing OHE for pyometra at older ages and without other severe health issues can expect to live their full life span. Veterinarians in private practice could expect similar outcomes.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop an endoscopic technique for use in monitoring devlopment of gastric ulcers via a gastric cannula during withholding of feed and administration of a finely ground diet to pigs.

Animals—6 pigs weighing between 60 and 70 kg.

Procedure—A gastric cannula was surgically inserted adjacent to the pars esophagea in each pig. Pigs were fed a finely ground diet for two 7-day periods that were separated by a 48-hour period during which feed was withheld. Endoscopic examination via the gastric cannula was used to monitor development of ulcers in the pars esophageal region of the pigs during the 48-hour period of feed withhold and subsequent 7-day feeding period. An ulcer score was assigned during each endoscopic examination. A final examination was performed during necropsy and compared with results for the final endoscopic examination.

Results—Consumption of a finely ground diet for 7 days resulted in progressive erosive damage to the pars esophageal region of the stomach. Further significant increases in ulcerative damage were detected after 24 and 48 hours of withholding of feed. Final examination during necropsy did not reveal significant differences from results obtained during the final endoscopic examination.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Endoscopic examination via a gastric cannula was an effective means of monitoring ulcer development in the pars esophagea of pigs. Feeding a finely ground diet and withholding of feed induced endoscopically observable ulcers in the stratified squamous epithelial region of the stomach. Direct visual examination during necropsy confirmed the accuracy of endoscopic examination. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1076–1082)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe findings, determine the rate of survival to hospital discharge, and identify prognostic indicators of poor outcomes for female cats (queens) with pyometra treated with ovariohysterectomy (OHE) in a nonspecialized setting.

ANIMALS

134 queens with pyometra diagnosed between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2019.

PROCEDURES

The medical records were retrospectively searched and data including patient history, clinical signs, blood work results, and outcome (survival to hospital discharge, length of hospitalization, and uterine rupture) were collected from medical records. Logistic regression models were used to assess potential predictors of outcomes.

RESULTS

Dehydration (69% [83/121]) and absolute neutrophilia (83% [52/63]) were commonly reported. The rate of survival to hospital discharge was 100% (126/126; 95% CI, 97% to 100%) for queens treated with OHE; 33% (41/126) were hospitalized ≥ 2 nights, and 4% (5/120) had uterine rupture. Queens with abnormal serum ionized calcium concentration or signs of depressed mentation had greater odds (OR of 4.64 and 2.26, respectively) of ≥ 2 nights’ hospitalization. Queens with high rectal temperature, closed pyometra, or heart murmur had greater odds (OR of 35.66, 17.37, or 16.06, respectively) of uterine rupture.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Our findings indicated that OHE for pyometra in queens was highly successful even when performed in a nonspecialty hospital with high-quality basic supportive care, and we believe most general practitioners who offer OHE could expect to see similar outcomes. With more general-practice veterinarians comfortable treating pyometra in their clinics, OHE for pyometra will be available to more pets, ultimately saving more lives.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the rate of survival to hospital discharge and identify indicators associated with poor outcomes among female dogs (bitches) with pyometra treated with ovariohysterectomy (OHE) in a nonspecialized setting.

ANIMALS

405 bitches diagnosed with pyometra at the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Animal Hospital from January 1, 2017, to February 8, 2019.

PROCEDURES

For this retrospective study, medical records were searched and data collected including patient history, clinical signs, serum biochemical analyses results, and outcome (survival to hospital discharge, length of hospital stay, and uterine rupture). Logistic regression models were used to assess multivariable associations and identify potential predictive variables.

RESULTS

The rate of survival to hospital discharge for bitches with pyometra treated with OHE was 97% (394/405); 44% (174/394) stayed in the hospital ≥ 2 nights, and 3% (11/390) had a ruptured uterus. Bitches with a high BUN concentration or heart murmur had greater odds of death after OHE; however, the model had low predictive power. Those with uterine rupture, inappetence, high concentrations of BUN or serum creatinine, low PCV, or dehydration had greater odds of hospitalization ≥ 2 nights. There were no significant predictors of uterine rupture.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The rate of survival to hospital discharge was high for bitches with pyometra treated with OHE in a nonspecialized setting; therefore, general practitioners could expect similar outcomes. With this important procedure widely available in general practices, more pets can receive treatment for this life-threatening disease.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association