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  • Author or Editor: Itamar Aroch x
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OBJECTIVE To characterize clinical and laboratory findings in cats with naturally occurring sepsis, emphasizing hemostasis-related findings, and evaluate these variables for associations with patient outcomes.

DESIGN Prospective, observational, clinical study.

ANIMALS 31 cats with sepsis and 33 healthy control cats.

PROCEDURES Data collected included history; clinical signs; results of hematologic, serum biochemical, and hemostatic tests; diagnosis; and outcome (survival vs death during hospitalization or ≤ 30 days after hospital discharge). Differences between cats with and without sepsis and associations between variables of interest and death were analyzed statistically.

RESULTS The sepsis group included cats with pyothorax (n = 10), septic peritonitis (7), panleukopenia virus infection (5), bite wounds (5), abscesses and diffuse cellulitis (3), and pyometra (1). Common clinical abnormalities included dehydration (21 cats), lethargy (21), anorexia (18), pale mucous membranes (15), and dullness (15). Numerous clinicopathologic abnormalities were identified in cats with sepsis; novel findings included metarubricytosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and high circulating muscle enzyme activities. Median activated partial thromboplastin time and plasma D-dimer concentrations were significantly higher, and total protein C and antithrombin activities were significantly lower, in the sepsis group than in healthy control cats. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy was uncommon (4/22 [18%] cats with sepsis). None of the clinicopathologic abnormalities were significantly associated with death on multivariate analysis.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cats with sepsis had multiple hematologic, biochemical, and hemostatic abnormalities on hospital admission, including several findings suggestive of hemostatic derangement. Additional research including larger numbers of cats is needed to further investigate these findings and explore associations with outcome.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To compare serum concentrations of histones and inflammatory markers in dogs with acute pancreatitis and healthy control dogs, investigate associations of these variables with coagulation test results and survival (vs nonsurvival) to hospital discharge, and examine the prognostic utility of clinical findings and routine laboratory and coagulation tests in affected dogs.


36 dogs.


Dogs with findings consistent with acute pancreatitis (n = 29) and healthy control dogs (7) were enrolled in a prospective, observational study. Serum concentrations of histones, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor-necrosis factor-α were assessed for all dogs. Clinical (including ultrasonographic) findings, relevant history, routine laboratory and coagulation test results, and outcomes were recorded for dogs with pancreatitis. Variables were assessed to determine an association with outcome for affected dogs and hospitalization time for survivors; histone concentrations and markers of inflammation were compared among survivors, nonsurvivors, and controls. Correlation between quantitative variables was investigated.


Serum histone and IL-6 concentrations did not differentiate survivors (n = 23) from nonsurvivors (6); IL-6 concentrations in affected dogs were correlated with 1,2-o-dilauryl-rac-glycero glutaric acid-(6′-methylresorufin) ester lipase activity (r S = 0.436) and hospitalization time (r S = 0.528). Pancreatitis-associated peritoneal fluid, obtundation, and jaundice were more common, and serum bilirubin concentration, serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin times were greater in nonsurvivors than in survivors. Thromboelastometric changes consistent with hypercoagulability were detected in survivors; hypocoagulability was detected in 2 nonsurvivors.


Serum histone concentrations were not associated with presence of acute pancreatitis or outcome for affected dogs. Further research is needed to investigate the clinical and therapeutic implications of hypocoagulability, hepatocellular injury, and pancreatitis-associated peritoneal fluid in affected dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2021;82:701–711)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research