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  • Author or Editor: Ismail Sen x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of syringe type and storage conditions on blood gas and acid-base values for equine blood samples.

Sample—Blood samples obtained from 8 healthy horses.

Procedures—Heparinized jugular venous blood was equilibrated via a tonometer at 37°C with 12% O2 and 5% CO2. Aliquots (3 mL) of tonometer-equilibrated blood were collected in random order by use of a glass syringe (GS), general-purpose polypropylene syringe (GPPS), or polypropylene syringe designed for blood gas analysis (PSBGA) and stored in ice water (0°C) or at room temperature (22°C) for 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, or 120 minutes. Blood pH was measured, and blood gas analysis was performed; data were analyzed by use of multivariable regression analysis.

Results—Blood Po 2 remained constant for the reference method (GS stored at 0°C) but decreased linearly at a rate of 7.3 mm Hg/h when stored in a GS at 22°C. In contrast, Po 2 increased when blood was stored at 0°C in a GPPS and PSBGA or at 22°C in a GPPS; however, Po 2 did not change when blood was stored at 22°C in a PSBGA. Calculated values for plasma concentration of HCO3 and total CO2 concentration remained constant in the 3 syringe types when blood was stored at 22°C for 2 hours but increased when blood was stored in a GS or GPPS at 0°C.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Blood samples for blood gas and acid-base analysis should be collected into a GS and stored at 0°C or collected into a PSBGA and stored at room temperature.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine and compare the abomasal emptying rates in calves suckling milk replacer or an isotonic or hypertonic solution of NaHCO3 or glucose.

Animals—5 male Holstein-Friesian calves that were < 30 days of age.

Procedures—Calves were fed 2 L of milk replacer or isotonic (300 mOsm/L) or hypertonic (600 mOsm/L) solutions of NaHCO3 or glucose containing acetaminophen (50 mg/kg). Venous blood samples and transabdominal ultrasonographic abomasal dimensions were obtained periodically after feeding, and abomasal luminal pH was continuously monitored by placement of a luminal pH electrode through an abomasal cannula. Abomasal emptying rate was assessed by the time to maximal plasma acetaminophen concentration, ultrasonographic determination of the half-time of abomasal emptying, and the time for luminal pH to return to within 1 pH unit of the preprandial value.

Results—Hypertonic NaHCO3 solution was emptied slower than an isotonic NaHCO3 solution, isotonic glucose solution was emptied slower than an isotonic NaHCO3 solution, and hypertonic glucose solution emptied slower than an isotonic glucose solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An electrolyte solution for oral administration with a high osmolarity and glucose concentration may lead to a slower resuscitation of dehydrated diarrheic calves because such solutions decrease the abomasal emptying rate and therefore the rate of solution delivery to the small intestine. Whether slowing of the abomasal emptying rate in dehydrated diarrheic calves suckling an oral electrolyte solution is clinically important remains to be determined.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine and compare the effects of 4 oral replacement therapy (ORT) solutions on acid-base balance, abomasal emptying rate, and plasma volume expansion in calves with naturally acquired diarrhea and moderate dehydration.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—20 calves.

Procedures—20 calves up to 45 days of age were randomly allocated (n = 5/group) to receive 2 L of 1 of 4 treatments via oroesophageal intubation: sodium bicarbonate (150 mmol/L or 300 mmol/L) or sodium acetate (150 mmol/L or 300 mmol/L). The 4 test solutions contained acetaminophen (50 mg/kg [22.7 mg/lb]) and 50 g of glucose monohydrate. Jugular venous blood samples were obtained periodically before and after administration of the ORT solution. Abomasal emptying rate was determined by use of the time to maximal plasma acetaminophen concentration.

Results—Plasma bicarbonate concentration increased more rapidly in calves administered bicarbonate-containing ORT solutions, whereas the rate of systemic alkalinization, as assessed via blood pH, did not differ consistently among treatments. The 300 mmol/L ORT solutions were emptied at a significantly slower rate from the abomasum than 150 mmol/L ORT solutions, with no difference in emptying rate between acetate and bicarbonate-con-taining ORT solutions of similar molality. The 300 mmol/L sodium acetate ORT solution significantly increased plasma volume.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Clinically important differences in the resuscitative response to 300 mmol/L or 150 mmol/L ORT solutions of sodium acetate or sodium bicarbonate were not identified.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the effects of IV administration of isotonic (1.3%) and hypertonic (8.4%) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solutions on acid-base status in dehydrated calves with strong ion (metabolic) acidosis.

Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—50 calves with diarrhea and severe dehydration.

Procedures—Calves were randomly assigned to receive isotonic NaHCO3 solution (65 mL/kg [29.5 mL/lb], IV) over 3 hours (n = 30) or hypertonic NaHCO3 solution (10 mL/kg [4.5 mL/lb], IV) over 20 minutes (20). Blood samples were collected at 0 hours (immediately prior to solution administration) and at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 hours after administration began. Samples were submitted for blood gas analysis, serum biochemical analysis, and determination of blood Na+, K+, and Cl concentrations and percentage change in plasma volume.

Results—Calves that received isotonic NaHCO3 solution had an increase in venous blood pH, HCO3 concentration, and base excess; a small, transient increase in Po 2; and no change in Pco 2 within 4 hours after administration began. Calves that received hypertonic NaHCO3 solution had an immediate increase in venous blood pH, HCO3 concentration, and base excess; a small, transient increase Pco 2; and no change in Po 2 within 0.5 hours after treatment began. Plasma volume increased to a greater extent following administration of isotonic solution than after administration of hypertonic solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of 8.4% NaHCO3 solution in small volumes provided fast and effective improvement of severe acid-base abnormalities in calves with severe strong ion acidosis but did not improve hydration status as well as administration of a larger volume of isotonic NaHCO3 solution.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the cardiorespiratory effects of IM administration of dexmedetomidine-buprenorphine (DB) and dexmedetomidine-buprenorphine-ketamine (DBK) in dogs with subsequent reversal with atipamezole.

Design—Prospective, randomized crossover study.

Animals—5 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were instrumented for cardiac output (CO) measurement and received DB (15 μg of dexmedetomidine/kg [6.8 μg/lb] and 40 μg of buprenorphine/kg [18.2 μg/lb]) or DBK (DB plus 3 mg of ketamine/kg [1.36 mg/lb]) in randomized order while breathing room air. Atipamezole (150 μg/kg [68.2 μg/lb], IM) was administered 1 hour later. Hemodynamic data were collected in the conscious dogs and then at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after drug administration. Lactate concentration was measured in mixed venous blood samples. Oxygen delivery (Do 2) and oxygen consumption ( o 2) were calculated.

Results—Heart rate (HR), CO, and Do 2 decreased after DB and DBK administration. The o 2 did not change in the DB group but decreased in the DBK group. The HR was higher in the DBK group than in the DB group throughout the study, but the CO, Do 2, and o 2 values were similar for the 2 groups. Blood lactate concentrations remained low (< 1 mmol/L) throughout the study. Arterial hypoxemia and hypercapnea occurred in both groups. Mean arterial blood pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure were markedly increased in both groups, but to a greater extent in the DBK group. After atipamezole administration, HR, CO, and Do 2 returned to the baseline values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Adding ketamine to the DB combination allowed dogs to maintain a higher HR and delayed the onset of sinus arrhythmias but failed to provide a significantly higher CO because of a reduction in stroke volume.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association