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  • Author or Editor: Isabelle Iff x
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Objective—To develop an epiduroscopic technique for use in standing cattle and describe the endoscopically visible anatomic structures of the epidural space in the sacrococcygeal area.

Animals—6 healthy nonlactating, nonpregnant cows (mean ± SD age, 60 ± 18.5 months; mean weight, 599.7 ± 63.87 kg) and 3 bovine cadavers.

Procedures—Cadavers were used to allow familiarization with the equipment and refinement of the technique. Following these experiences, procedures were performed in live animals. Each cow was restrained in a stock. After sedation with xylazine (0.03 mg/kg, IV), 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (0.25 mg/kg) was injected epidurally in the first intercoccygeal or the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space. By use of an introducer set (guidewire and dilation trocar and shaft), a flexible endoscope (length, 75 cm; diameter, 2.3 mm) was inserted through the dilation shaft into the epidural space. To obtain an optimal view, small amounts of air were insufflated into the epidural space through the working channel of the endoscope via a syringe with special filter.

Results—Anatomic structures of the epidural space that were viewed by means of the endoscopic procedure included blood vessels, connective tissue, fat, nerves, and the spinal dura mater. No adverse events were detected during epiduroscopy, and it was tolerated well by all 6 cows.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In ruminants, epidural structures can be viewed via endoscopy. Such epiduroscopic procedures may be useful in anatomic studies as well as for the diagnosis of disease or therapeutic interventions in ruminants.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare the cardiopulmonary effects of anesthesia maintained by continuous infusion of ketamine and propofol with anesthesia maintained by inhalation of sevoflurane in goats undergoing magnetic resonance imaging.

Animals—8 Saanen goats.

Procedures—Goats were anesthetized twice (1-month interval) following sedation with midazolam (0.4 mg/kg, IV). Anesthesia was induced via IV administration of ketamine (3 mg/kg) and propofol (1 mg/kg) and maintained with an IV infusion of ketamine (0.03 mg/kg/min) and propofol (0.3 mg/kg/min) and 100% inspired oxygen (K-P treatment) or induced via IV administration of propofol (4 mg/kg) and maintained via inhalation of sevoflurane in oxygen (end-expired concentration, 2.3%; 1X minimum alveolar concentration; SEVO treatment). Cardiopulmonary and blood gas variables were assessed at intervals after induction of anesthesia.

Results—Mean ± SD end-expired sevoflurane was 2.24 ± 0.2%; ketamine and propofol were infused at rates of 0.03 ± 0.002 mg/kg/min and 0.29 ± 0.02 mg/kg/min, respectively. Overall, administration of ketamine and propofol for total IV anesthesia was associated with a degree of immobility and effects on cardiopulmonary parameters that were comparable to those associated with anesthesia maintained by inhalation of sevoflurane. Compared with the K-P treatment group, mean and diastolic blood pressure values in the SEVO treatment group were significantly lower at most or all time points after induction of anesthesia. After both treatments, recovery from anesthesia was good or excellent.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that ketamine-propofol total IV anesthesia in goats breathing 100% oxygen is practical and safe for performance of magnetic resonance imaging procedures. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:2135–2141)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research