Objective—To determine effects of obesity and diet
in dogs on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations
by assaying plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations
and determining total plasma cholesterol and triglyceride
concentrations as well as the concentrations of
cholesterol and triglycerides in various lipoprotein
classes (ie, very-low-density, low-density, and high-density
Animals—24 Beagles; 12 lean (mean [± SEM] body
weight, 12.7 ± 0.7 kg) and 12 chronically obese (21.9
± 0.8 kg) dogs of both sexes, between 1 and 9 years
Procedure—Total plasma cholesterol and triglyceride
concentrations; lipoprotein cholesterol and
triglyceride concentrations; and plasma ghrelin, leptin,
free fatty acids, insulin, and glucose concentrations
were measured and compared between lean and
obese dogs, both of which were fed a complete and
balanced maintenance diet. Chronically obese dogs
were subsequently fed a high-protein low-energy diet
to evaluate effects of diet composition on plasma lipid
and lipoprotein measurements.
Results—Chronic obesity resulted in a significant
decrease in plasma ghrelin concentration and a significant
increase in plasma leptin, cholesterol, and
triglyceride concentrations in dogs. High total plasma
cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations resulted
from increased cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations
in all lipoprotein fractions. In obese dogs, modification
of diet composition resulted in beneficial
effects on plasma lipid and leptin concentrations,
even before weight loss was observed.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Correlations
exist between obesity and plasma measurements (ie,
lipoproteins, leptin, insulin, and ghrelin) commonly
associated with obesity. Modification of diet composition
to control energy intake improves plasma lipid
and leptin concentrations in obese dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:81–86)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether consumption of a single dental treat with specific mechanical properties and active ingredients would provide a 24-hour effect on dental plaque bacteria and halitosis in dogs.
ANIMALS 10 dogs of various breeds from a privately owned colony that had received routine dental scaling and polishing 4 weeks before the study began.
PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 placebo or dental treat first. A 4-week washout period was provided, and then dogs received the opposite treatment. Oral plaque and breath samples were collected before and 0.5, 3, 12, and 24 hours after treat consumption. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) concentration was measured in breath samples. Total aerobic, total anaerobic, Porphyromonas gulae, Prevotella intermedia–like, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum bacterial counts (measured via bacterial culture) and total live bacterial counts, total live and dead bacterial counts, and bacterial vitality (measured via quantitative real-time PCR assay) were assessed in plaque samples.
RESULTS Compared with placebo treat consumption, dental treat consumption resulted in a significant decrease in breath VSCs concentration and all plaque bacterial counts, without an effect on bacterial vitality. Effects of the dental treat versus the placebo treat persisted for 12 hours for several bacterial counts and for 24 hours for breath VSCs concentration.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although clinical benefits should be investigated in larger scale, longer-term studies, results of this study suggested that feeding the evaluated dental treat may help to decrease oral bacterial growth in dogs for 12 hours and oral malodor for 24 hours. A feeding interval of 12 hours is therefore recommended.