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  • Author or Editor: Irwin K. M. Liu x
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SUMMARY

Undiluted uterine secretion was used to determine the concentration of total protein and the accumulated volume of uterine secretion after a bacterial inoculation in mares susceptible and resistant to chronic uterine infection (cui). The uterus of 6 susceptible and 5 resistant mares was inoculated with 5 × 106 Streptococcus zooepidemicus on the third day of estrus. Using a tampon inserted in the uterus, secretions were sampled at 5, 12, 24, and 36 hours after inoculation, followed by intrauterine lavage with phosphate buffered saline solution. The concentration of protein was determined in the undiluted secretion as well as in the uterine washing and the total amount of accumulated uterine secretion was calculated. Protein concentrations in plasma were compared before and after absorption by the tampon.

Protein concentration of plasma before and after absorption by the tampon did not differ. Mares susceptible to cui accumulated significantly (P < 0.001) more fluid in the uterus than mares resistant to cui, and uterine washings from the resistant mares were significantly (P < 0.05) more dilute than those from the susceptible mares. Significant differences in protein concentrations between susceptible and resistant mares were not found. It was concluded from this study that the described method to sample undiluted uterine secretion was practical and reliable for the analysis of protein concentration. Various concentrations of uterine secretions in washings from susceptible and resistant mares emphasizes the importance in using undiluted uterine secretions or dilution markers in washings when intrauterine products are analyzed.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Six foals were deprived of colostrum for the first 36 hours after birth and, instead, received reconstituted powdered milk. Five control foals suckled their dams naturally. Blood samples were obtained from all the foals after birth and at approximately weekly intervals until at least 5.5 months of age. Sera were analyzed for hemolytic complement activity, complement component C3, and correlating IgG concentration. Hemolytic complement (P = 0.0145) and C3 (P = 0.0002) values were significantly higher in colostrum-deprived foals (cdf) than in naturally nursed foals at 2 to 5 days of age. In addition, significantly (P = 0.0149) higher IgG concentration was found in cdf than in naturally nursed foals between 3 and 5.5 months of age. It was concluded that the observed high complement activity in cdf within 2 to 5 days of age may provide an alternative in immune defense for IgG-deprived foals after failure of colostral transfer.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Four intrauterine treatment strategies were evaluated for effectiveness in mares that were confirmed to be susceptible to chronic uterine infection. Pretreatment samples were obtained at detection of estrus, and a genital strain of Streptococcus zooepidemicus was infused into the uterus when a preovulatory (> 35 mm) follicle was detected. At 12 hours after inoculation, mares were assigned to 1 of 4 selected treatment groups: autologous plasma, 100 ml (n = 5); potassium penicillin, 5 million U in 100 ml of phosphate-buffered saline solution (pbss; n = 5); 10 mg of prostaglandin F in 100 ml of pbss (n = 5); and large-volume lavage with normal saline solution (1,000 ml increments). A fifth group, treated with vehicle alone (100 ml of pbss), served as a negative control (n = 7). All treatments were administered into the uterus. To assess the effectiveness of the treatment, samples for culture and cytologic examination were collected at 96 hours after bacterial inoculation. An effect of treatment was observed on the number of uterine neutrophils (P = 0.02) and growth of S zooepidemicus (P < 0.01). Intrauterine treatment with potassium penicillin, prostaglandin F, and largevolume uterine lavage significantly reduced the growth of S zooepidemicus (P < 0.01) as well as the number of neutrophils (P < 0.02). Autologous plasma reduced the number of neutrophils (P < 0.05), but not growth of S zooepidemicus. There was significant correlation between the number of uterine neutrophils and growth of S zooepidemicus for each treatment group (r = 0.57; P < 0.05).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The relationship between histologic lesions in endometrial biopsy specimens and susceptibility to chronic uterine infection (cui) in mares was investigated. Mares were allotted to 4 groups on the basis of degree of endometrial lesions. Mares in group 1 (n = 6) had no pathologic changes, mares in group 2 (n = 5) had only mild pathologic changes, group-3 mares (n = 7) had moderate changes, and group-4 mares (n = 7) had severe inflammatory and fibrotic endometrial changes. Susceptibility to cui was determined by the inflammatory response to intrauterine inoculation of 5 × 106 Streptococcus zooepidemicus. The inoculum was given on the third day of behavioral estrus and in the presence of a follicle > 30 mm. Mares with > 1 neutrophil/5 high-magnification (400 ×) microscopic fields and > 20 colonies of S zooepidemicus at 96 hours after inoculation were considered to be susceptible to cui.

There was a significant association between biopsy grade and susceptibility to cui among the groups. Histologically normal endometrium was associated with resistance to cui, and severe histopathologic changes in the endometrium were associated with susceptibility to cui. Mild to moderate endometrial lesions did not correlate consistently with susceptibility or resistance to cui.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Ten foals of various breeds were deprived of colostrum from birth to 36 hours of age, then were allotted to 2 groups. Foals of group 1 (n = 6) were given 20 g (200 ml) of purified equine IgG iv in a 10% solution, and foals of group 2 (n = 4) were given 30 g (300 ml) of the same preparation. Total administration time for each 10 g of IgG in 100 ml was approximately 10 minutes. Serum IgG concentration in foals was assessed prior to, between 24 and 48 hours, and at 7 and 14 days after IgG administration.

Between 24 and 48 hours after IgG administration, mean serum IgG concentration in group-1 foals was 425 mg/dl (range, 350 to 480 mg/dl). Mean body weight for this group of foals was 50.3 kg (range, 43.3 to 54.7 kg).

For group-2 foals, mean serum IgG concentration was 768 mg/dl (range, 640 to 920 mg/dl) between 24 and 48 hours after administration of IgG. Foals of this group had mean body weight of 43.2 kg (range, 36.5 to 47.5 kg). Serum IgG concentration in group-2 foals at 24 to 48 hours was significantly (P = 0.005) greater than that in group- 1 foals.

Mean total IgG recovery at 24 to 48 hours, calculated on the basis of 94.5 ml of plasma volume/kg of body weight, was approximately 100%.

Values of IgG measured in all foals 1 and 2 weeks after administration of the IgG concentrate were equivalent to values expected after normal decay of passively acquired IgG. Mild, adverse reactions occurred in 3 of the 10 foals treated (1 group-1 foal and 2 group-2 foals).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To test the hypothesis that head-down positioning in anesthetized horses increases intracranial pressure (ICP) and decreases cerebral and spinal cord blood flows.

Animals—6 adult horses.

Procedures—For each horse, anesthesia was induced with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride and maintained with 1.57% isoflurane in oxygen. Once in right lateral recumbency, horses were ventilated to maintain normocapnia. An ICP transducer was placed in the subarachnoid space, and catheters were placed in the left cardiac ventricle and in multiple vessels. Blood flow measurements were made by use of a fluorescent microsphere technique while each horse was in horizontal and head-down positions. Inferential statistical analyses were performed via repeated-measures ANOVA and Dunn-Sidak comparisons.

Results—Because 1 horse developed extreme hypotension, data from 5 horses were analyzed. During head-down positioning, mean ± SEM ICP increased to 55 ± 2 mm Hg, compared with 31 ± 2 mm Hg during horizontal positioning; cerebral perfusion pressure was unchanged. Compared with findings during horizontal positioning, blood flow to the cerebrum, cerebellum, and cranial portion of the brainstem decreased significantly by approximately 20% during head-down positioning; blood flows within the pons and medulla were mildly but not significantly decreased. Spinal cord blood flow was low (9 mL/min/100 g of tissue) and unaffected by position.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Head-down positioning increased heart-brain hydrostatic gradients in isoflurane-anesthetized horses, thereby decreasing cerebral blood flow and, to a greater extent, increasing ICP. During anesthesia, CNS regions with low blood flows in horses may be predisposed to ischemic injury induced by high ICP.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the activity of catalase in equine semen.

Animals—15 stallions of known and unknown reproductive history.

Procedure—Seminal plasma was collected from raw equine semen by centrifugation, and samples of seminal plasma were frozen prior to assay for catalase activity. Tissue samples (n = 3 stallions) from the bulbourethral gland, prostate gland, vesicular gland, and testis were homogenized, and cauda epididymal fluid was collected for determination of catalase activity. Catalase activity was determined as an enzyme kinetic assay by the disappearance of H2O2 as measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometry.

Results—Catalase activity in equine seminal plasma was 989.3 ± 167.8 U/ml (mean ± SEM), and the specific activity of catalase in equine seminal plasma was 98.7 ± 29.2 U/mg of protein. Specific activity of catalase in tissue homogenates was significantly higher in the prostate gland (954 ± 270 U/mg of protein) than in the ampulla (59 ± 5 U/mg of protein), bulbourethral gland (54 ± 11 U/mg of protein), vesicular gland (39 ± 3 U/mg of protein), cauda epididymal fluid (11 ± 3 U/mg protein), or testis (54 ± 6 U/mg of protein).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Equine seminal plasma contains a high activity of catalase that is derived primarily from prostatic secretions. Procedures such as semen cryopreservation that remove most seminal plasma from semen may reduce the ability to scavenge H2O2 and thereby increase the susceptibility of spermatozoa to oxidative stress. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1026–1030)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To test a hypothesis predicting that isoflurane would interfere with cerebrovascular autoregulation in horses and to evaluate whether increased mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) would increase cerebral blood flow and intracranial pressure (ICP) during isoflurane anesthesia.

Animals—6 healthy adult horses.

Procedures—Horses were anesthetized with isoflurane at a constant end-tidal concentration sufficient to maintain MAP at 60 mm Hg. The facial, carotid, and dorsal metatarsal arteries were catheterized for blood sample collection and pressure measurements. A sub-arachnoid transducer was used to measure ICP Fluorescent microspheres were injected through a left ventricular catheter during MAP conditions of 60 mm Hg, and blood samples were collected. This process was repeated with different-colored microspheres at the same isoflurane concentration during MAP conditions of 80 and 100 mm Hg achieved with IV administration of dobutamine. Central nervous system tissue samples were obtained after euthanasia to quantify fluorescence and calculate blood flow.

Results—Increased MAP did not increase ICP or blood flow in any of the brain tissues examined. However, values for blood flow were low for all tested brain regions except the pons and cerebellum. Spinal cord blood flow was significantly decreased at the highest MAP.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that healthy horses autoregulate blood flow in the CNS at moderate to deep planes of isoflurane anesthesia. Nonetheless, relatively low blood flows in the brain and spinal cord of anesthetized horses may increase risks for hypoperfusion and neurologic injury.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the incidence of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) infection among Thoroughbreds residing on a farm on which the virus was known to be endemic.

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—10 nonpregnant mares, 8 stallions, 16 weanlings, 11 racehorses, and 30 pregnant mares and their foals born during the 2006 foaling season.

Procedures—Blood and nasopharygeal swab samples were collected every 3 to 5 weeks for 9 months, and placenta and colostrum samples were collected at foaling. All samples were submitted for testing for EHV-1 DNA with a PCR assay. A type-specific EHV-1 ELISA was used to determine antibody titers in mares and foals at birth, 12 to 24 hours after birth, and every 3 to 5 weeks thereafter.

Results—Results of the PCR assay were positive for only 4 of the 1,330 samples collected (590 blood samples, 590 nasopharyngeal swab samples, 30 placentas, and 30 colostrum samples), with EHV-1 DNA detected in nasal secretions from 3 horses (pregnant mare, stallion, and racehorse) and in the placenta from 1 mare. Seroconversion was detected in 3 of 27 foals during the first month of life.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that there was a low prevalence of EHV-1 infection among this population of Thoroughbreds even though the virus was known to be endemic on the farm and that pregnant mares could become infected without aborting. Analysis of nasopharyngeal swab samples appeared to be more sensitive than analysis of blood samples for detection of EHV-1 DNA.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association