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  • Author or Editor: Irmeli Happonen x
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Objective—To assess the safety of endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) in dogs by performing repeated clinical examinations and laboratory analyses of serum amylase, lipase, canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI), and canine pancreatic elastase 1 (cE1) after the procedure.

Animals—7 healthy Beagles.

Procedure—Clinical examinations were performed and blood samples obtained for serum enzyme determinations before and at intervals (10 minutes; 2, 4, and 6 hours; and 1, 2, and 3 days) after ERP.

Results—Repeated clinical examinations revealed no signs of ERP-induced complications in the 7 dogs. Results of repeated laboratory tests indicated a transient increase in serum values of amylase, lipase, and cTLI but not cE1. Mean ± SD lipase activity increased from 120.7 ± 116.4 U/L to 423.4 ± 243.1 U/L at 4 hours after ERP. Median serum cTLI concentration increased from 16.2 µg/L (range, 7.7 to 26.5 µg/L) to 34.9 µg/L (range, 16.6 to 68.3 µg/L) 10 minutes after ERP. Enzyme values returned to baseline levels at the latest on day 2 in 6 of 7 dogs. Highest values for serum amylase, lipase, and cTLI and their delayed return to baseline values were detected in 1 dog with contrast filling of the pancreatic parenchyma.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that ERP appears to be a safe imaging technique of pancreatic ducts in healthy dogs, although it induced a transient increase in serum values of pancreatic enzymes. In dogs, repeated clinical examinations and serum enzyme determinations can be used to monitor ERP-induced complications such as acute pancreatitis. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:616–619)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


To determine prevalence, colonization density, and distribution of helicobacters and gastric histologic findings in healthy dogs and dogs with signs of gastritis; to evaluate association of colonization density and gastric inflammation; and to compare the number of Helicobacter spp with degree of inflammation.


Cross-sectional prevalence survey.


25 healthy dogs and 21 dogs with signs of gastritis.


During endoscopy, gastric mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained from healthy and affected client-owned dogs. Histologic and cytologic evaluation and results of a urease test were used for detecting helicobacters, which were identified definitively by use of transmission electron microscopy and bacterial culture.


Helicobacters were detected in all 25 healthy and 20 of 21 affected dogs. Cytologic examination was a more sensitive method than histologic examination or the urease test. Helicobacters were found least frequently and in fewest number in the antrum in both groups of dogs. Gastric inflammation was evident in both groups of dogs and did not differ significantly between groups. A significant association was not detected between colonization density or the number of Helicobacter spp and degree of gastric inflammation. In both groups, H bizzozeronii, H felis, and H salomonis were cultured.

Clinical Implications

Histologically verified chronic gastritis is common in dogs with signs of gastritis as well as in healthy dogs. Colonization density of helicobacters was not associated with degree of gastric inflammation in the dogs of our study. It remains to be determined whether certain strains of Helicobacter spp can induce gastritis in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:1767–1774)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association