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  • Author or Editor: Inke Paetau-Robinson x
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Abstract

Objective—To develop morphometric equations for prediction of body composition and create a body fat index (BFI) system to estimate body fat percentage in overweight and obese cats.

Design—Prospective evaluation study.

Animals—76 overweight or obese cats ≥ 1 year of age.

Procedures—Body condition score (BCS) was determined with a 5-point scale, morphometric measurements were made, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was performed. Visual and palpation-based evaluation of various body regions was conducted, and results were used for development of the BFI system. Best-fit multiple regression models were used to develop equations for predicting lean body mass and fat mass from morphometric measurements. Predicted values for body composition components were compared with DEXA results.

Results—For the study population, prediction equations accounted for 85% of the variation in lean body mass and 98% of the variation in fat mass. Values derived from morphometric equations for fat mass and lean mass were within 10% of DEXA values for 55 of 76 (72%) and 66 of 76 (87%) cats, respectively. Body fat as a percentage of total body weight (ie, body fat percentage) predicted with the BCS and BFI was within 10% of the DEXA value for 5 of 39 (13%) and 22 of 39 (56%) cats, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The BFI system and morphometric equations were considered accurate for estimation of body composition components in overweight and obese cats of the study population and appeared to be more useful than BCS for evaluation of these patients. Further research is needed to validate the use of these methods in other feline populations. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014;244:1285–1290)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental l-carnitine, lipoic acid, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in dogs.

Design—Prospective clinical study

Animals—50 overweight dogs.

Procedures—The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 dogs were allocated to 3 groups (10 dogs/group) to be fed a dry maintenance dog food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 dogs was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1% to 2%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each dog was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Dogs were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase.

Results—During trial 1, dogs in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, dogs lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass (LBM) during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body fat but gained LBM during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism and LBM retention were improved from baseline for dogs fed the test food.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that feeding overweight dogs the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight-maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop morphometric equations for prediction of body composition and create a body fat index (BFI) to estimate body fat percentage in overweight and obese dogs.

Design—Prospective evaluation study.

Animals—83 overweight or obese dogs ≥ 1 year of age.

Procedures—Body condition score (BCS) was assessed on a 5-point scale, morphometric measurements were made, and visual and palpation-based assessments and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were performed. Equations for predicting lean body mass, fat mass, and body fat as a percentage of total body weight (ie, body fat percentage) on the basis of morphometric measurements were generated with best-fit statistical models. Visual and palpation-based descriptors were used to develop a BFI. Predicted values for body composition components were compared with DEXA-measured values.

Results—For the study population, the developed morphometric equations accounted for 98% of the variation in lean body mass and fat mass and 82% of the variation in body fat percentage. The proportion of dogs with predicted values within 10% of the DEXA values was 66 of 83 (80%) for lean body mass, 56 of 83 (68%) for fat mass, and 56 of 83 (67%) for body fat percentage. The BFI accurately predicted body fat percentage in 25 of 47 (53%) dogs, whereas the value predicted with BCS was accurate in 6 of 47 (13%) dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Morphometric measurements and the BFI appeared to be more accurate than the 5-point BCS method for estimation of body fat percentage in overweight and obese dogs. Further research is needed to assess the applicability of these findings to other populations of dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014;244:1279–1284)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental l-carnitine, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in cats.

Design—Prospective clinical study.

Animals—50 overweight cats.

Procedures—The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 cats were allocated to 3 groups (10 cats/group) to be fed a dry maintenance cat food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 cats was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each cat was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Cats were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase.

Results—During trial 1, cats in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, cats lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body weight and fat mass but gained lean body mass during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism was improved from baseline for cats fed the test food.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that feeding overweight cats the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the efficacy and safety of using 2 commercially available, low-magnesium, urine-acidifying dry foods to dissolve sterile struvite uroliths in cats.

Design—Prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trial

Sample—37 cats with presumed struvite uroliths.

Procedures—Cats were randomly assigned to be fed 1 of 2 low-magnesium, urine-acidifying dry foods (food A or B). For each cat, physical examination, urinalysis, and abdominal radiography were performed weekly to assess treatment response.

Results—32 cats had complete urolith dissolution. Mean ± SD times for a 50% reduction in urolith size (0.69 ± 0.1 weeks) and complete urolith dissolution (13.0 ± 2.6 days) were significantly shorter for cats fed food A, compared with those (1.75 ± 0.27 weeks and 27.0 ± 2.6 days, respectively) for cats fed food B. At study termination, mean ± SD urine pH (6.083 ± 0.105) for cats fed food A was lower than that (6.431 ± 0.109) for cats fed food B. In 5 cats, uroliths did not dissolve and were subsequently determined to be composed of 100% ammonium urate (n = 4) or 100% calcium oxalate (1). Adverse events associated with diet were not observed in any of the cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that dietary dissolution is safe and effective for eradication of sterile struvite uroliths in cats. Cats fed food A had faster urolith dissolution than did cats fed food B. Lack of a reduction in urolith size at 2 weeks after diet initiation was indicative of misdiagnosis or noncompliance.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of nutrition on recurrent clinical signs of lower urinary tract (LUT) disease in cats with idiopathic cystitis.

Design—Randomized, controlled, masked clinical trial.

Animals—31 cats with acute nonobstructive idiopathic cystitis.

Procedures—Cats were assigned to receive 1 of 2 foods (a cystitis prevention or control food) that differed in mineral (calcium, phosphorous, and magnesium), antioxidant, and fatty acid profiles. Owners documented LUT signs daily for up to 1 year. The primary endpoint was the number of recurrent episodes in which a cat had multiple (≥ 2 concurrent) LUT signs within a day (defined as multiple-sign day). Consecutive days in which a cat had multiple LUT signs were considered as a single episode.

Results—4 cats fed prevention food and 2 cats fed control food were excluded from analysis because of noncompliance, gastrointestinal signs, food refusal, or owner voluntary withdrawal. The proportion of cats fed prevention food that had ≥ 1 recurrent episode of multiple-sign days (4/11) was not significantly lower than that of cats fed control food (9/14). However, cats fed prevention food had significantly lower mean incidence rates for recurrent episodes of multiple-sign days (0.7 episodes/1,000 cat-days) and episodes of hematuria (0.3 episodes/1,000 cat-days), dysuria (0.2 episodes/1,000 cat-days), and stranguria (0.2 episodes/1,000 cat-days) as single LUT signs, compared with cats fed control food (5.4, 3.4, 3.1, and 3.8 episodes/1,000 cat-days, respectively). Significantly fewer cats fed prevention food required analgesics (4/11), compared with cats fed control food (12/14).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Foods with differing nutritional profiles appeared to impact mean incidence rates of recurrent feline idiopathic cystitis-associated signs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association