A 9-year-old 2.9-kg (6.4-lb) sexually intact female Maltese was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of Seoul National University for evaluation and treatment of mammary gland neoplasia. Masses were initially observed approximately 3 years previously and had slowly increased in size. The owner had also noticed an intermittent cough that began 1 year ago. On physical examination, the dog was bright, alert, and responsive, with pink mucous membranes and capillary refill time < 1 second. The dog's body condition score was 5 on a scale from 1 to 9. Rectal temperature was 39.3°C (102.7°F), heart rate was 120
A 4-year-old 2.0-kg (4.4-lb) spayed female Chihuahua with a history of acute epileptic seizures was referred to the Ian Animal Diagnostic Imaging Center for MRI of the brain. The dog's seizures initially occurred once or twice a day and at the time of the examination were reported by the owner to have begun 3 days previously. The seizures were less than a minute in duration and characterized by altered mentation, disorientation, failure to respond to its owner, and autonomic release (urination). Results of a CBC and serum biochemistry profile performed by the referring veterinarian were unremarkable.
Procedure—Each of the cattle was restrained in a
standing position. Height of the second lumbar vertebra's
transverse process (2LTP) and humeral tuberosity
(HT) on the right side as well as abdominal girth
(AG) were measured in each animal, and body condition
score (BCS) was ascertained. Skin caudal to the
first lumbar spinous process was aseptically prepared,
and anesthetic was injected. After inserting a
16-gauge 120-mm Tuohy needle in the ligamentum
flavum, a calibrated pressure transducer was connected
to the needle. Then, the needle was introduced
into the epidural space, and epidural pressure
Results—Mean ± SD residual epidural pressure of
heifers (–9.3 ± 3.3 mm Hg) was significantly higher than
that of lactating (–17.4 ± 5.5 mm Hg) or nonlactating
(–14.5 ± 2.4 mm Hg) cows. Stepwise regression of 5
variables revealed that only the difference in height
between 2LTP and HT (2LTP – HT) in heifers and only
BCS in lactating cows were significantly correlated with
residual epidural pressure. For all cattle, the optimal
equation (R2 = 0.47) describing the relationship was
y = –12.7 + 6.3x1 – 0.4x2 – 0.1x3, where y is epidural
pressure, x1 is BCS, x2 is 2LTP – HT, and x3 is age.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Negative
epidural pressure was detected in standing cattle.
Growth, maturity, and pregnancy affect epidural pressure
in cattle. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:954–957)
Objective—To evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for development of corneal ulcers after nonocular surgery performed with general anesthesia in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—14 dogs with development of corneal ulcers after nonocular surgery and 718 control dogs.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs evaluated at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of Seoul National University from January 2009 to June 2011 were reviewed for assessment of risk factors for development of corneal ulcers.
Results—Among the 732 reviewed cases, 14 (1.9%) dogs of 6 breeds developed a corneal ulcer after nonocular surgery. Duration of anesthesia was significantly longer in dogs with ulcers than dogs without ulcers. The number of medications received and procedures performed were also significantly higher in dogs with ulcers than dogs without ulcers. Dogs with a small skull (OR, 8.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 70.90) and dogs that received neurosurgery (OR, 21.12; 95% CI, 5.77 to 77.25) were more susceptible to development of corneal ulcers. Also, postoperative application of a fentanyl patch was a risk factor for development of corneal ulcers (OR, 4.53; 95% CI, 1.05 to 19.60).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Several risk factors were identified for development of corneal ulcers after nonocular surgery was performed with general anesthesia in dogs. Perioperative eye protection strategies and postoperative ophthalmic examination are needed to reduce the occurrence of corneal ulcers and their progression, especially for high-risk dogs and procedures.
Objective—To evaluate the effects of thiopental, propofol, and etomidate on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured by the use of dynamic computed tomography in dogs.
Animals—17 healthy Beagles.
Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 2 mg of etomidate/kg (n = 5), 6 mg of propofol/kg (7), or 15 mg of thiopental/kg (5) during induction of anesthesia; anesthesia was subsequently maintained by isoflurane evaporated in 100% oxygen. A 1 mL/kg dosage of a 300 mg/mL solution of iohexol was administered at a rate of 3 mL/s during GFR measurement. Regions of interest of the right kidney were manually drawn to exclude vessels and fatty tissues and highlight the abdominal portion of the aorta. Iohexol clearance per unit volume of the kidney was calculated by use of Patlak plot analysis.
Results—Mean ± SD weight-adjusted GFR of the right kidney after induction of anesthesia with thiopental, propofol, and etomidate was 2.04 ± 0.36 mL/min/kg, 2.06 ± 0.29 mL/min/kg, and 2.14 ± 0.43 mL/min/kg, respectively. However, no significant differences in weight-adjusted GFR were detected among the treatment groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results obtained for the measurement of GFR in anesthetized dogs after anesthetic induction with etomidate, propofol, or thiopental and maintenance with isoflurane did not differ significantly. Therefore, etomidate, propofol, or thiopental can be used in anesthesia-induction protocols that involve the use of isoflurane for maintenance of anesthesia without adversely affecting GFR measurements obtained by the use of dynamic computed tomography in dogs.
A 7-month-old 1.3-kg (2.87-lb) sexually intact male Poodle was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of Seoul National University for evaluation and treatment of microhepatica. The patient had a history of anorexia, weakness, and growth retardation and exhibited signs of hypoglycemic shock and blindness during examination by the referring veterinarian. Considering the patient's history and clinical signs, a portosystemic shunt was suspected, and CT was planned to confirm this diagnosis. On referral, results of a complete physical examination and thoracic radiography were unremarkable. A CBC and serum biochemical analysis indicated leukocytosis (20,310 cells/μL; reference range, 5,200 to 17,000
5 dogs with a history of ventriculocordectomy were anesthetized with isoflurane for ovariohysterectomy, dental prophylaxis, or intracapsular lens extraction.
No remarkable, abnormal clinical signs such as exercise intolerance, respiratory distress, or stridor were found in 4 dogs. However, 1 dog had cough after drinking, which had started after the ventriculocordectomy. During intubation, laryngeal web, suspected to be a complication of ventriculocordectomy, was accidentally discovered.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Laryngeal web was observed during intubation, necessitating the use of a smaller-diameter endotracheal tube (ETT) for intubation. However, the smaller cuff volume of the smaller ETT did not prevent the air leak. Therefore, the ETT with the inflated cuff was pulled cranially until the narrowed laryngeal lumen was plugged with the cuff behind the vocal cords. The ETT was secured to prevent slippage. No air leakage around the ETT cuff or complications related to the ETT placement were observed in the peri-anesthetic period in any dog.
Laryngeal web can be found in patients with a history of larynx-related surgeries and may allow only a small-diameter ETT to pass through. The sealing technique used for peri-cuff air leak using a small ETT described here that can pass through a laryngeal web could be useful to seal an air leak around the cuff without complications.
A 12-year-old 13.8-kg (30.4-lb) castrated male Beagle was examined at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of Seoul National University for a cervical mass and hoarseness. The owner had observed the mass 1 year previously, and there had been no notable change in size; however, barking sounds were slightly harsh recently. Cytologic examination of a fine-needle aspirate of the mass performed by the referring veterinarian suggested a diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. On physical examination at our hospital, an approximately 3-cmdiameter, round, firm, immobile, apparently nonpainful mass was palpated subcutaneously in the region of the right thyroid gland. No other abnormalities
Objective—To evaluate the effects of peribulbar anesthesia (sub-Tenon injection of lidocaine hydrochloride) on akinesia of extraocular muscles, mydriasis, and intraoperative and postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing phacoemulsification.
Animals—14 Beagles with ophthalmically normal eyes.
Procedures—A blinded randomized controlled trial was performed. Dogs were anesthetized and assigned to 2 treatments: concurrent sub-Tenon injection of 2% lidocaine hydrochloride solution (2 mL) and IV injection of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.02 mL/kg; lidocaine group [n = 7]) or concurrent sub-Tenon injection of saline solution (2 mL) and IV injection of 0.2 mg of atracurium/kg (0.02 mL/kg; control group ). Pupils were dilated by topical application of a combined tropicamide and phenylephrine ophthalmic solution. Ten minutes after the injections, pupil diameter was measured and phacoemulsification was performed. End-tidal isoflurane concentration was used to evaluate intraoperative pain. Subjective pain scores were recorded during the postoperative period.
Results—Akinesia was induced and maintained throughout the surgery in all eyes. Mean ± SD pupil diameter was significantly greater in the lidocaine group (13.7 ± 0.7 mm) than in the control group (12.2 ± 0.8 mm). Isoflurane requirements were significantly lower in the lidocaine group than the control group. However, postoperative pain scores were not significantly different between the groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Sub-Tenon injection of lidocaine was an effective method for inducing akinesia of extraocular muscles, mydriasis, and intraoperative analgesia for phacoemulsification in dogs. Therefore, this could be another option for surgical field exposure and pain management during phacoemulsification in dogs.