To report the fluoroscopic removal or repositioning of urinary tract implants in dogs and cats by use of an endovascular snare system (ESS) and to report procedural usefulness and complications in dogs and cats.
3 cats and 14 dogs.
A medical records review was performed to identify dogs and cats that underwent removal or repositioning of urinary tract foreign bodies or implants by use of an ESS with fluoroscopic guidance at a veterinary teaching hospital from 2013 to 2019.
Dogs had a median weight of 25 kg (55 lb) with a range of 3.5 to 60.6 kg (7.7 to 133.3 lb), and cats had a median weight of 5 kg (11 lb) with a range of 4.2 to 5.4 kg (9.2 to 11.9 lb). By use of an ESS, 12 patients (2 cats and 10 dogs) underwent transurethral retrieval of retained vesicourethral implants or ureteral stents, 2 dogs underwent transurethral ureteral stent repositioning, 1 cat and 2 dogs underwent transnephric retrieval of ureteral stents, and 1 dog underwent cystoscopic-assisted transureteral ureteral stent retrieval. All procedures were successfully performed, and there were no associated procedural complications.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Retained vesicourethral implants or ureteral stents were successfully retrieved by use of an ESS in dogs and cats transurethrally or with an open or percutaneous transnephric approach and fluoroscopic guidance. These techniques should be considered as an alternative or adjunct to more invasive methods for implant retrieval or manipulation.
To describe postobstructive diuresis (POD) in cats undergoing surgical placement of ureteral stents or subcutaneous ureteral bypass systems for treatment of ureteral obstruction in cats and to identify factors associated with duration and maximum severity of POD.
Retrospective case series.
37 client-owned cats with ureteral obstruction treated between August 2010 and December 2014.
Medical records were reviewed, and data extracted included signalment, history, results from physical examinations and clinical laboratory analyses, treatment, urine output, and outcome. Data were evaluated to identify factors associated with POD duration and maximum severity, alone or in combination.
Serum concentrations of creatinine, potassium, phosphorus, and BUN before surgery positively correlated with duration and maximum severity of POD. Absolute changes in serum concentrations of creatinine, potassium, and BUN from before surgery to after surgery positively correlated with POD duration. Cats with anuria before surgery had longer POD than did other cats; however, there was no difference in POD duration or maximum severity with unilateral versus bilateral ureteral obstruction. Thirty-four of 37 (92%) cats survived to hospital discharge, which was not associated with whether ureteral obstruction was unilateral or bilateral. Azotemia resolved in 17 of the 34 (50%) cats that survived to hospital discharge.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results of the present study indicated that several factors were associated with POD duration and maximum severity, alone or in combination, and that with intensive management of fluid and electrolyte derangements, regardless of the extent of the original azotemia, a high percentage of cats survived to hospital discharge.
To document outcomes of thoracoscopic treatment of idiopathic chylothorax (IC) in dogs with and without constrictive pericardial physiology (CPP) and evaluate patterns of chyle flow redistribution after thoracic duct ligation (TDL).
26 client-owned dogs.
In this prospective cohort study, echocardiography and cardiac catheterization were performed to document CPP in dogs with IC. Thoracoscopic TDL with pericardiectomy was performed if CPP was present (TDL/P group). Dogs without evidence of CPP underwent thoracoscopic TDL alone (TDL group). Dogs underwent preoperative, immediate postoperative, and 3-month postoperative CT lymphangiography studies when possible. Perioperative morbidity, resolution and late recurrence rates, and long-term outcome were recorded.
17 dogs underwent TDL, and 9 underwent TDL/P. Twenty-five of 26 (96%) survived the perioperative period. One dog died from ventricular fibrillation during pericardiectomy. Resolution rates for TDL and TDL/P were 94% and 88%, respectively (P = .55), with 1 late recurrence occurring in the TDL group in a median follow-up of 25 months (range, 4 to 60 months). On 3-month postoperative CT lymphangiography studies, ongoing chyle flow past the ligation site was demonstrated in 5 of 17 dogs, of which 1 dog developed recurrence at 13 months postoperatively. In 15 of 17 dogs, chylous redistribution after TDL was principally by retrograde flow to the lumbar lymphatic plexus.
In dogs without evidence of CPP, TDL alone was associated with a very good prognosis for treatment of IC. In the absence of CPP, the additional benefit of pericardiectomy in the treatment of IC is questionable.
To describe surgical technique, biopsy sample quality, and short-term outcome of minimally invasive small intestinal exploration and targeted abdominal organ biopsy (MISIETB) with use of a wound retraction device (WRD) in dogs.
27 client-owned dogs that underwent MISIETB with a WRD at 1 of 4 academic veterinary hospitals between January 1, 2010, and May 1, 2017.
Medical records were retrospectively reviewed, and data collected included signalment; medical history; findings from physical, ultrasonographic, laparoscopic, cytologic, and histologic evaluations; surgical indications, procedures, duration, and complications; and short-term (14-day) outcomes. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to evaluate the normality of continuous variables, and descriptive statistics were calculated for numeric variables.
Laparoscopic exploration was performed through a multicannulated single port (n = 18), multiple ports (5), or a single 6-mm cannula (4). Median length of the incision for WRD placement was 4 cm (interquartile [25th to 75th percentile] range, 3 to 6 cm). All biopsy samples obtained had sufficient diagnostic quality. The 2 most common histologic diagnoses were lymphoplasmacytic enteritis (n = 14) and intestinal lymphoma (5). Twenty-five of 27 (93%) dogs survived to hospital discharge, and 3 (12%) dogs had postsurgical abnormalities unrelated to surgical technique.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that MISIETB with WRD was an effective method for obtaining diagnostic biopsy samples of the stomach, small intestine, pancreas, liver, and mesenteric lymph nodes in dogs. Prospective comparison between MISIETB with WRD and traditional laparotomy for abdominal organ biopsy in dogs is warranted.
To report the short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) for resection of unilateral adrenal masses and to document risk factors for conversion and peri- and postoperative morbidity.
255 client-owned dogs.
Dogs were included if LA was attempted for resection of a unilateral adrenal mass. Medical records were evaluated and relevant data were reported, including complications, conversion, perioperative death, and long-term outcomes. Signalment, clinicopathological data, and surgical experience were factors statistically evaluated for possible associations with capsular penetration during surgery, conversion, surgical time, duration of hospital stay, death prior to discharge, mass recurrence, and survival time.
155 dogs had left-sided tumors, and 100 had right-sided tumors. Conversion to an open approach was performed in 9.4% of cases. Capsular penetration (19.2%) and major hemorrhage (5.4%) were the most prevalent intraoperative complications. Of the dogs operated on, 94.9% were discharged from the hospital. Lesion side, portion of the gland affected, and surgeon experience influenced surgical time. Conversion rate increased with increasing body condition score and lesion size. Risk of death prior to discharge increased with increasing lesion size. Risk of conversion and death prior to discharge were lower when performed by more experienced surgeons. Capsular penetration during LA increased the risk of tumor recurrence.
LA for resection of unilateral adrenal masses is associated with excellent outcomes in experienced centers. Surgeons with greater experience with LA have lower surgical times, conversion rates, and risk of death prior to discharge.