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  • Author or Editor: Inge Tarnow x
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Objective—To evaluate markers of hemostasis and their relationship to the degree of mitral regurgitation (MR) and platelet function in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs) with myxomatous mitral valve disease.

Animals—76 clinically healthy CKCSs and 24 control dogs.

Procedure—All dogs underwent echocardiographic examination; various hemostatic, hematologic, and biochemical variables were evaluated in blood. The CKCSs were allocated to 1 of 3 groups on the basis of MR severity. In 8 control dogs and 8 CKCSs, plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF) multimer analysis was performed.

Results—Compared with control dogs, plasma fibrinogen concentration was higher in all CKCSs and related to left ventricular end diastolic diameter and left atrial-to-aortic root ratio among all CKCSs. The activated partial thromboplastin times and plasma Ddimer concentration were similar among the 4 groups. Plasma vWF concentration was lower in CKCSs with moderate to severe MR, compared with that of CKCSs with no MR and control dogs. There was a relationship between plasma vWF concentration and platelet function in CKCSs but not in control dogs. In 4 CKCSs with moderate to severe MR and low plasma vWF concentration, amounts of vWF high-molecular-weight multimers (HMWMs) were low.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In CKCSs, MR appeared to be associated with a low plasma vWF concentration and likely a loss of vWF HMWMs (possibly through their destruction via shear stress to the blood). The importance of the changes in plasma fibrinogen concentration and the thromboembolic risk in dogs with MR remain to be investigated. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1644–1652)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To investigate serum and plasma serotonin concentrations, percentage of serotonin-positive platelets, level of surface-bound platelet serotonin expression (mean fluorescence intensity [MFI]), and platelet activation (CD62 expression) in platelet-rich plasma from Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD).

ANIMALS Healthy dogs (n = 15) and dogs with mild MMVD (18), moderate-severe MMVD (19), or severe MMVD with congestive heart failure (CHF; 10).

PROCEDURES Blood samples were collected from each dog. Serum and plasma serotonin concentrations were measured with an ELISA, and surface-bound platelet serotonin expression and platelet activation were determined by flow cytometry.

RESULTS Dogs with mild MMVD had higher median serum (746 ng/mL) and plasma (33.3 ng/mL) serotonin concentrations, compared with MMVD-affected dogs with CHF (388 ng/mL and 9.9 ng/mL, respectively), but no other group differences were found. Among disease groups, no differences in surface-bound serotonin expression or platelet activation were found. Thrombocytopenic dogs had lower serum serotonin concentration (482 ng/mL) than nonthrombocytopenic dogs (731 ng/mL). In 26 dogs, a flow cytometry scatterplot subpopulation (FSSP) of platelets was identified; dogs with an FSSP had a higher percentage of serotonin-positive platelets (11.0%), higher level of surface-bound serotonin expression (MFI, 32,068), and higher platelet activation (MFI, 2,363) than did dogs without an FSSP (5.7%, 1,230, and 1,165, respectively). An FSSP was present in 93.8% of thrombocytopenic dogs and in 29.5% of nonthrombocytopenic dogs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A substantive influence of circulating serotonin on MMVD stages prior to CHF development in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels was not supported by the study findings. An FSSP of highly activated platelets with pronounced serotonin binding was strongly associated with thrombocytopenia but not MMVD.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research