A 9-year-old spayed female Greyhound that was nonambulatory was examined because of painful progressive paraparesis of 1 week's duration. No precipitating cause had been identified by the owner. Findings on initial CBC and serum biochemical analysis were unremarkable.
Physical examination findings were unremarkable. Neurologic assessment revealed paraparesis with absent conscious proprioception in both pelvic limbs and normal spinal reflexes. The cutaneous trunci reflex was absent caudal to L4. Signs of diffuse pain were evident on palpation of the cranial lumbar region. The lesion was localized to the T3-L3 spinal cord segment. Survey radiography of the lumbar portion of the
OBJECTIVE To investigate regional differences of relative metabolite concentrations in the brain of healthy dogs with short echo time, single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) at 3.0 T.
ANIMALS 10 Beagles.
PROCEDURES Short echo time, single voxel 1H MRS was performed at the level of the right and left basal ganglia, right and left thalamus, right and left parietal lobes, occipital lobe, and cerebellum. Data were analyzed with an automated fitting method (linear combination model). Metabolite concentrations relative to water content were obtained, including N-acetyl aspartate, total choline, creatine, myoinositol, the sum of glutamine and glutamate (glutamine-glutamate complex), and glutathione. Metabolite ratios with creatine as the reference metabolite were calculated. Concentration differences between right and left hemispheres and sexes were evaluated with a Wilcoxon signed rank test and among various regions of the brain with an independent t test and 1-way ANOVA.
RESULTS No significant differences were detected between sexes and right and left hemispheres. All metabolites, except the glutamine-glutamate complex and glutathione, had regional concentrations that differed significantly. The creatine concentration was highest in the basal ganglia and cerebellum and lowest in the parietal lobes. The N-acetyl aspartate concentration was highest in the parietal lobes and lowest in the cerebellum. Total choline concentration was highest in the basal ganglia and lowest in the occipital lobe.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Metabolite concentrations differed among brain parenchymal regions in healthy dogs. This study may provide reference values for clinical and research studies involving 1H MRS performed at 3.0 T.
Objective—To perform morphometric analysis of the caudal cranial fossa in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs), to assess the relationship between caudal fossa dimensions and the frequency of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of occipital abnormalities in CKCSs (with and without syringomyelia), and to compare caudal cranial fossa measurements in CKCSs with measurements of 2 groups of mesaticephalic dogs.
Animals—70 CKCSs and 80 mesaticephalic (control) dogs.
Procedures—Dogs were placed into 4 groups as follows: Labrador Retrievers (n = 40), spaniel-type dogs (40; English Springer Spaniels and Cocker Spaniels), CKCSs with syringomyelia (55), and CKCSs without syringomyelia (15). Multiple morphometric measurements (linear, angular, and area) were obtained from cranial midsagittalT2-weighted magnetic resonance images including the brain and cervical portion of the spinal cord. Several specific MRI findings were also recorded for CKCSs that appeared to affect the occipital bone and cervicomedullary junction.
Results—No significant difference was identified among breeds in control groups and between sexes in any of the groups for all morphometric measurements. Significant differences were identified in CKCSs, compared with mesaticephalic dogs, in the area of the caudal cranial fossa and for several linear measurements that reflected the length of the ventral aspect of the occipital bone. These differences were greater in CKCSs with syringomyelia. All CKCSs had abnormalities in occipital bone shape.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CKCSs had a shallower caudal cranial fossa and abnormalities of the occipital bone, compared with those of mesaticephalic dogs. These changes were more severe in CKCSs with syringomyelia.
Objective—To investigate clinical use of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) and to compare metabolic brain bioprofiles of dogs with and without hepatic encephalopathy.
Animals—6 dogs with hepatic encephalopathy and 12 control dogs.
Procedures—Conventional MRI and single-voxel 1H MRS were performed with a 3-T magnet. Images for routine MRI planes and sequences were obtained. Single-voxel 1H MRS was performed with a point-resolved sequence with a short echo time (35 milliseconds) and voxel of interest placement at the level of the basal ganglia. Metabolites of interest included the glutamine-glutamate complex (sum quantification of glutamate and glutamine), myoinositol, N-acetyl aspartate, total choline, and creatine. Data were analyzed with postprocessing fitting algorithm software, and metabolite concentration relative to water and ratios with creatine as the reference metabolite were calculated.
Results—Compared with control dogs, dogs with hepatic encephalopathy had specific changes, which included significantly higher concentration relative to water of the glutamine-glutamate complex and significantly lower concentration of myoinositol. Choline and N-acetyl aspartate concentrations were also slightly lower in dogs with hepatic encephalopathy than in control dogs. No differences in creatine concentration were detected between groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—1H MRS aided in the diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy in dogs, and findings supported the assumption that ammonia is a neurotoxin that manifests via glutamine-glutamate complex derangements. Use of 1H MRS may provide clinically relevant information in patients with subclinical hepatic encephalopathy, equivocal results of bile acids tests, and equivocal ammonia concentrations or may be helpful in monitoring efficacy of medical management.
OBJECTIVE To investigate metabolite concentrations of the brains of dogs with intracranial neoplasia or noninfectious meningoencephalitis by use of short echo time, single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) at 3.0 T.
ANIMALS 29 dogs with intracranial lesions (14 with neoplasia [3 oligodendromas, 3 glioblastomas multiformes, 3 astrocytomas, 2 lymphomas, and 3 meningiomas] and 15 is with noninfectious meningoencephalitis) and 10 healthy control dogs.
PROCEDURES Short echo time, single voxel 1H-MRS at 3.0 T was performed on neoplastic and noninfectious inflammatory intracranial lesions identified with conventional MRI. Metabolites of interest included N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), total choline, creatine, myoinositol, the glutamine-glutamate complex (Glx), glutathione, taurine, lactate, and lipids. Data were analyzed with postprocessing fitting algorithm software. Metabolite concentrations relative to brain water content were calculated and compared with results for the healthy control dogs, which had been previously evaluated with the same 1H MRS technique.
RESULTS NAA, creatine, and Glx concentrations were reduced in the brains of dogs with neoplasia and noninfectious meningoencephalitis, whereas choline concentration was increased. Concentrations of these metabolites differed significantly between dogs with neoplasia and dogs with noninfectious meningoencephalitis. Concentrations of NAA, creatine, and Glx were significantly lower in dogs with neoplasia, whereas the concentration of choline was significantly higher in dogs with neoplasia. Lipids were predominantly found in dogs with high-grade intra-axial neoplasia, meningioma, and necrotizing meningoencephalitis. A high concentration of taurine was found in 10 of 15 dogs with noninfectious meningoencephalitis.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE1H MRS provided additional metabolic information about intracranial neoplasia and noninfectious meningoencephalitis in dogs.
A 4-month-old 17.5-kg neutered male Boxer was referred to the neurology department of a referral veterinary hospital for evaluation of a 3-day history of acute-onset progressive reluctance to walk, right pelvic limb lameness progressing to non–weight-bearing lameness, and spontaneous yelping when standing up and walking, with no history of trauma. Radiographic findings for the lumbosacral region, pelvis, and hip and knee joints were unremarkable (Figure 1). Prior to referral, the dog received meloxicam, which lead to mild improvement; however, on the day before referral, the dog’s condition deteriorated.