Objective—To determine the acute and short-term
adverse effects of a liposome-encapsulated form of
cisplatin at increasing dosages of up to twice the
known maximally tolerated dose (MTD) of unencapsulated
cisplatin in clinically normal dogs.
Procedure—4 dosages (70, 100, 125, and 150 mg/m2)
were evaluated, and the 4 dogs received a total of 9
infusions (1 to 3 infusions/dog). Dogs were monitored
to detect changes in clinical and clinicopathologic status.
Evaluations consisting of a physical examination,
CBC, serum biochemical analysis, and urinalysis were
performed before and 7 and 21 days after each infusion.
Results—Acute anaphylactic-like reactions to liposome-
encapsulated cisplatin were common but clinically
manageable. Nephrotoxicosis and substantial
myelosuppression, toxic effects commonly associated
with unencapsulated cisplatin, were not observed
in dogs treated with liposome-encapsulated cisplatin
at dosages equivalent to twice the known MTD of
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Liposome-encapsulated
cisplatin can be safely administered to
clinically normal dogs at dosages of up to 150 mg/m2
without the need for concurrent hydration protocols.
This was a necessary prerequisite to enable phase I
clinical trials in dogs with naturally developing cancers
that could theoretically benefit from escalation in the
dosage of cisplatin. Determination of an MTD, cumulative
and long-term toxic effects, and efficacy can now
be conducted in the context of phase I trials in tumorbearing
dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1474–1478)
Objective—To characterize demographics and clinical signs and evaluate outcomes of treatments in cats with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—20 cats with TCC.
Procedures—Medical records of 20 cats with a bladder mass identified as a TCC that were examined at 2 veterinary institutions between 1990 and 2004 were evaluated. Signalment, treatments, and outcome were assessed.
Results—Breeds included domestic short hair (n = 14), long hair (2), and medium hair (2) cats, Siamese (1), and Abyssinian (1). All cats had been neutered at an early age (< 1 year old; 13 neutered males and 7 spayed females). The median age at diagnosis of TCC was 15.2 years. The trigone region was affected in 9 cats. Treatments included piroxicam administration, chemotherapy, or surgery as single interventions or in combination; 6 cats were not treated. At the time of diagnosis, 3 cats had pulmonary metastasis and 1 cat had metastasis to local lymph nodes. Median survival time for all 20 cats was 261 days. Nearly all deaths were attributable to progressive disease in the urinary tract. Five cats were lost to follow-up.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In cats, TCC of the urinary bladder appears to be a rare and aggressive disease that is more prevalent in male cats and frequently develops at sites distant from the trigone (unlike TCC in dogs). Nevertheless, initial clinical signs of TCC in cats in this study were similar to those reported for affected dogs.
Animals—71 dogs with subcutaneous or intramuscular HSA.
Procedures—Medical records of affected dogs were reviewed. The following factors were evaluated for an association with outcome: dog age and sex, clinical signs, anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutrophilia, tumor stage at diagnosis, achievement of complete excision, intramuscular involvement, presence of gross disease, tumor recurrence, and treatment.
Results—Of the 71 cases identified, 16 (29%) had intramuscular tumor involvement. For all dogs, median time to tumor progression and overall survival time (OST) were 116 and 172 days, respectively; 25% survived to 1 year. Univariate analysis identified presence of clinical signs or metastasis at diagnosis, dog age, tumor size, use of any surgery, and presence of gross disease as predictors of time to tumor progression and OST. There was no significant difference in survival time between dogs with respect to type of HSA. Multivariate analysis confirmed that adequate local tumor control, tumor diameter ≤ 4 cm, presence of metastasis at diagnosis, and presence of gross disease were significantly associated with OST.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Subcutaneous and intramuscular HSA remains a heterogeneous group of tumors that generally carries a poor prognosis. Adequate local control of smaller tumors with no associated clinical signs or metastasis may provide the best chance of long-term survival.
Objective—To compare results of computed tomography (CT) and radiography with histopathologic findings in tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLNs) in dogs with primary lung tumors.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—14 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Criteria for inclusion were diagnosis of primary lung tumor, use of thoracic radiography and CT, and histologic confirmation of TBLN status. Medical records were reviewed for signalment; history; and physical examination, clinicopathologic, radiographic, CT, surgical, and histopathologic findings.
Results—Tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy was not identified via radiography in any dogs. Tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy was diagnosed in 5 dogs via CT. Six dogs had histologic confirmation of metastasis to TBLNs. Radiographic diagnosis yielded 6 false-negative and no false-positive results for tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy. Computed tomography yielded 1 falsenegative and no false-positive results. Sensitivity of CT for correctly assessing TBLN status was 83%, and specificity was 100%. Positive predictive value was 100%, and negative predictive value was 89%. Dogs with lymphadenopathy via CT, histologic confirmation of TBLN metastasis, or primary tumors with a histologic grade > 1 had significantly shorter survival times than their counterparts.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of CT evaluation of TBLN status were in agreement with histopathologic findings and more accurate than use of thoracic radiography for evaluating TBLNs in dogs with primary lung tumors. Computed tomography imaging should be considered as part of the staging process to more accurately assess the TBLNs in dogs with primary lung tumors.
Objective—To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a vaccine containing plasmid DNA with an insert encoding human tyrosinase (ie, huTyr vaccine) as adjunctive treatment for oral malignant melanoma (MM) in dogs.
Animals—111 dogs (58 prospectively enrolled in a multicenter clinical trial and 53 historical controls) with stage II or III oral MM (modified World Health Organization staging scale, I to IV) in which locoregional disease control was achieved.
Procedures—58 dogs received an initial series of 4 injections of huTyr vaccine (102 μg of DNA/injection) administered transdermally by use of a needle-free IM vaccination device. Dogs were monitored for adverse reactions. Surviving dogs received booster injections at 6-month intervals thereafter. Survival time for vaccinates was compared with that of historical control dogs via Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for the outcome of death.
Results—Kaplan-Meier analysis of survival time until death attributable to MM was determined to be significantly improved for dogs that received the huTyr vaccine, compared with that of historical controls. However, median survival time could not be determined for vaccinates because < 50% died of MM before the end of the observation period. No systemic reactions requiring veterinary intervention were associated with vaccination. Local reactions were primarily limited to acute wheal or hematoma formation, mild signs of pain at the injection site, and postvaccination bruising.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results support the safety and efficacy of the huTyr DNA vaccine in dogs as adjunctive treatment for oral MM.
Impact for Human Medicine—Response to DNA vaccination in dogs with oral MM may be useful in development of plasmid DNA vaccination protocols for human patients with similar disease.
Objective—To determine clinical response and toxic
effects of cis-bis-neodecanoato-trans-R,R-1,2-
diaminocyclohexane platinum (II) (L-NDDP) administered
IV at escalating doses to cats with oral squamous
cell carcinoma (SCC).
Animals—18 cats with oral SCC.
Procedure—Cats that failed to respond to conventional
treatment or had nonresectable tumors were
included. Data included a CBC, serum biochemical
analyses, urinalysis, cytologic examination of a fineneedle
aspirate of enlarged lymph nodes, and thoracic
and oral radiographs for clinical staging. A
starting dose (75 to 100 mg/m2 of L-NDDP) was
administered IV. At 21-day intervals, subsequent
doses increased by the rate of 5 or 10 mg/m2.
Response was evaluated every 21 days by tumor
measurement and thoracic radiography. Quality of
life was assessed by owners, using a performance
Results—On average, cats received 2 treatments.
Toxicoses included an intermittent, acute anaphylactoid-
parasympathomimetic reaction, lethargy or
sedation (≤ 24 hours), inappetence or signs of
depression (≤ 72 hours), mild to moderate increase
in hepatic enzyme activity, and melena. Pulmonary,
renal, or hematopoietic abnormalities were not evident.
Performance status surveys indicated normal
behavior and grooming or decreased activity and
self-care (19/20 assessments), ate well with or
without assistance (15/20), and did not lose weight
(15/20). Median survival time was 59.8 days (mean,
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—L-NDDP was
ineffective for treatment of cats with oral SCC. None
of the cats had a complete or partial remission.
Acute toxicoses and poor therapeutic response limit
therapeutic usefulness of L-NDDP in cats, unless
dosage, frequency, and administration procedures
can be improved. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61: