Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for

  • Author or Editor: Ibulaimu Kakoma x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Summary

The antigenic profile of Ehrlichia canis, E risticii, E sennetsu, and E equi was investigated by the use of protein (western) immunoblot technique. Results of analysis of serum from acutely and chronically infected animals indicated that the 4 Ehrlichia species share a unique 25- kD polypeptide in addition to other peptides. Immune sera from dogs inoculated with E canis recognized a wide range of E canis polypeptide antigens, as determined by western blot analysis. A larger number of E sennetsu polypeptides were detected when homologous antiserum and antiserum to E equi were used. The latter antiserum did not recognize antigens of E canis or E risticii. Antisera to E canis, E risticii, and E sennetsu detected E equi antigens. Data indicate that a 25-kD protein is a common antigen among the species of the genus Ehrlichia and that the ascending order of abundance of immunodominant determinants in the 4 species of Ehrlichia studied would be: E risticiiE equiE sennetsuE canis. Implications of these findings for diagnosis of ehrlichial infections and prophylaxis are evident.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the immune response induced by Borrelia theileri infection and to determine whether B theileri induces cross-reacting antibodies to other bovine borreliae.

Animals

Two 3-month-old calves, 1 of which was splenectomized.

Procedure

Calves were exposed to Boophilus microplus infected with B theileri. Rectal temperature, PCV, bacteremia, and clinical signs of infection were monitored. Serum was obtained weekly and used to evaluate the humoral response to homologous antigen and B burgdorferi and B coriaceae, using an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test, and to B burgdorferi, using a commercially available ELISA. The identity of cross-reacting antigens was explored, using monoclonal antibodies to genus- and species-specific antigens in an IFA test.

Results

B theileri-infected calves produced antibodies that cross-reacted with B burgdorferi and B coriaceae whole-cell antigens. Borrelia theileri whole-cell antigen was recognized by genus-specific monoclonal antibody H9724 but not by species-specific antibody H5332. False-positive reactions were not observed when serum from B theileri-infected calves was tested by use of the ELISA for B burgdorferi.

Conclusions

B theileri induces humoral responses in infected cattle that can be confused with those of other borrelial infections. Care must be taken to definitively distinguish between the various borreliae that may cause disease in cattle.

Clinical Relevance

Serologic cross-reactivity must be taken into account when making a serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis or epizootic abortion in epidemiologic studies involving cattle. (Am J Vet Res 1999; 60:694–697)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine in vitro efficacy of gentamicin, tobramycin, and miconazole when used in combination, with or without atropine, against Pseudomonas or Aspergillus sp.

Procedure

Selected ophthalmic agents were combined for predetermined times. Sterile disks impregnated with the combined solutions were prepared and placed on Mueller-Hinton plates that were seeded with Pseudomonas or Aspergillus sp. Zones of growth inhibition were measured at postincubation hours 24 and 48.

Results

Tobramycin alone inhibited growth of Pseudomonas sp, whereas miconazole inhibited growth of Aspergillus sp. Significant differences in zones of growth inhibition when atropine was combined with tobramycin, when gentamicin was combined with miconazole, or when atropine was combined with miconazole and gentamicin, were not detected.

Clinical Relevance

Combining selected ophthalmic therapeutic agents for as long as 6 hours does not appear to alter the in vitro efficacy of the agents against microorganisms used in this study. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:316–318)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether methicillin-resistant staphylococci from dogs expressed the mecA gene and to determine what proportion of canine staphylococcal isolates positive for the mecA gene were resistant to oxacillin and other antibiotics.

Sample Population

25 methicillin-resistant (10 coagulase-positive and 15 coagulase-negative) and 15 methicillin-susceptible (8 coagulase-positive and 7 coagulase-negative) staphylococci isolated from dogs.

Procedure

All strains were tested for methicillin resistance by use of oxacillin agar screening and identified by use of standard techniques. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 16 antibiotics were determined for all 40 isolates. A polymerase chain reaction method targeting a 533-basepair fragment of the mecA gene was used to detect mecA gene expression.

Results

23 of the 25 methicillin-resistant isolates and none of the methicillin-susceptible isolates possessed the mecA gene. For 10 of 16 antibiotics, the proportion of mecA-positive isolates that were resistant or of intermediate susceptibility was significantly higher than the proportion of mecA-negative isolates that were resistant or of intermediate susceptibility. Only 1 methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive isolate was identified as Staphylococcus intermedius; the other 9 were identified as S aureus.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Results confirm that staphylococci isolated from dogs may have methicillin resistance mediated by the mecA gene. Isolates positive for the mecA gene were more likely to be resistant to various antibiotics than were isolates negative for the mecA gene. Results suggest that in dogs, infections caused by staphylococci that have the mecA gene may be difficult to treat because of resistance to antibiotics. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1526–1530)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Fetal infectivity of Ehrlichia risticii was investigated in 19 ponies that were E risticii negative on the basis of results of an indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test. Thirteen pregnant ponies were infected by iv administration of E risticii between 90 and 180 days of gestation. Six pregnant ponies served as noninfected controls. Each infected pony had clinical signs of equine monocytic ehrlichiosis, was confirmed to be ehrlichemic, and developed an ifa titer to E risticii. Two infected ponies became recumbent, were unresponsive to supportive care, and were euthanatized. After recovery from clinical illness, the remaining ponies were observed throughout gestation for reproductive abnormalities. On abortion, each fetus was necropsied and tissue specimens from the liver, bone marrow, spleen, colon, and mesenteric lymph nodes were inoculated into canine monocyte cell cultures. Six infected ponies aborted at a mean 217 days of gestation, which was between postinoculation days 65 and 111. Five fetuses were recovered for evaluation, and E risticii was isolated from 4 of them. All 5 fetuses recovered had similar histologic findings, including enterocolitis, periportal hepatitis, and lymphoid hyperplasia with necrosis of the mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. All 5 fetuses tested negative for IgG to E risticii, although 3 had low IgM titer to E risticii. The remaining 5 infected ponies had normal parturition. Presuckle ifa titer to E risticii was measured in 4 of the term foals, and results for 3 were positive. Two foals from infected ponies were monitored for 6 months and daily gain in body weight was comparable to that of a control foal. None of the control ponies became ill or seroconverted during the clinical illness phase, and none aborted throughout gestation. Two control ponies seroconverted to E risticii 6 weeks before parturition. Results of this study indicate that E risticii is a primary abortifacient under experimental conditions.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To investigate intramammary infections in llamas, identify the pathogens responsible, and determine whether effects of intramammary infection could be detected by use of mastitis indicator tests commonly used for cows.

Design

Observational study.

Animals

100 llamas on 10 farms.

Procedure

Milk samples were evaluated by bacterial culturing and by determination of somatic cell count (SCC), using direct microscopic and automated counting methods, California Mastitis Test score, pH, and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity. Correlation coefficients were determined among the various mastitis indicator tests, and test results were determined for milk from infected and uninfected glands.

Results

Evidence of intramammary infection was evident in 76 of 369 (21%) milk samples, with 54 of 94 (57%) llamas having at least 1 infected gland. Staphylococcus sp other than Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant pathogens. None of the llamas had clinical signs of mastitis, and significant differences were not detected in SCC, California Mastitis Test score, pH, or N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity between infected and uninfected samples. California Mastitis Test scores were negative or trace for 307 of 313 (98%) samples, and SCC were low. In contrast, pH and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity of milk from uninfected glands were higher than values reported for milk from uninfected cows, and neither variable was significantly correlated with the number of somatic cells in samples of llama milk.

Clinical Implications

Although intramammary infections develop in llamas, inflammation (mastitis) appears to be rare. Values for mastitis indicator tests used for cows cannot be directly extrapolated to llamas. Subclinical mastitis is apparently not an important problem in llamas in the United States. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1457–1463).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine nonenteric sites associated with Escherichia coli isolates in dogs and the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates.

Design—Retrospective study.

Sample Population—17,000 canine specimens.

Procedure—Medical records of 17,000 canine specimens submitted for bacteriologic culture were examined and the number of isolations of E coli was determined. For these cases, records were further examined with respect to body system involvement, sex, concurrent infection with other species of bacteria, and antimicrobial susceptibility.

Results—674 E coli isolates (424 from urine, 62 from the skin, 52 from the respiratory tract, 45 from the ear, 43 from the female reproductive tract, 25 from the male reproductive tract, and 23 from other organ systems) were identified. There was a significantly higher proportion of isolates from urine specimens from spayed females than from sexually intact females or males. Escherichia coli was isolated in pure culture from 65.9% of the specimens. Most E coli isolates were susceptible to norfloxacin (90%), enrofloxacin (87.5%), gentamicin (90.7%), and amikacin (85.9%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most nonenteric E coli infections in dogs involve the urinary tract. Amikacin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, and enrofloxacin have the highest efficacy against canine E coli isolates. For E coli isolates from dogs, in vitro susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobial agents has remained fairly stable during the past decade. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:381–384)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association