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A nerve muscle pedicle (nmp) graft was placed in the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (cad) muscle of 6 horses with induced left laryngeal hemiplegia. The nmp graft was created by use of the first cervical nerve and omohyoideus muscle. In 1 horse (control), the first cervical nerve was transected after placement of the nmp graft. One year after the surgical procedure, horses were examined endoscopically and then anesthetized. While the larynx was observed endoscopically, the first cervical nerve was stimulated. Horses were subsequently euthanatized, and the larynx was harvested.

Prior to anesthesia, the endoscopic appearance of the larynx of all horses was typical of laryngeal hemiplegia. During anesthesia, stimulation of the first cervical nerve produced vigorous abduction of the left aiytenoid in principal horses but not in the control horse. The right cricoarytenoideus lateralis and cad muscles were grossly and histologically normal. Also, the left cricoarytenoideus lateralis was atrophic in all horses as was the left cad muscle of the control horse. In contrast, the left cad muscle harvested from principal horses had evidence of reinnervation with type 1 or type 2 fiber grouping. One year after the nmp graft procedure, horses with left laryngeal hemiplegia had reinnervation of the left cad muscle. In another study, reinnervation was sufficient to allow normal laryngeal function during exercise. Combined, these data suggest that the nmp graft procedure is a viable technique for the treatment of left laryngeal hemiplegia in horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


To determine the effect that feeding diets containing a low (17%), medium (25%), or high (32%) protein content would have on behavior in dogs.


Prospective, controlled study.


12 dogs with dominance aggression, 12 dogs with hyperactivity, 12 dogs with territorial aggression, and 14 control dogs without behavioral problems.


Dogs were fed each of the diets for a 2-week period, and owners were instructed to score their dogs' behavior on a daily basis.


Behavior of the dogs with dominance aggression, dogs with hyperactivity, and control dogs was unchanged by the dietary manipulations. Territorial aggression was significantly reduced when dogs were fed the low- or medium-protein diet, compared with territorial aggression when fed the high-protein diet. Post hoc analysis indicated that this effect was attributable to a marked reduction in aggression in a subset of the group (n = 7) in which territorial aggression was a result of fear.

Clinical Implications—

Results of this study suggest that a reduction in dietary protein content is not generally useful in the treatment of behavior problems in dogs, but may be appropriate in dogs with territorial aggression that is a result of fear. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:376-379)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association