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Objective

To document anatomic patterns of scintigraphic uptake and related orthopedic disease associated with racing activity in Standardbred horses.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

64 Standardbred horses evaluated for lameness.

Procedure

Medical records at the time of discharge were reviewed, and information regarding signalment; history; results of lameness examination, scintigraphy, and radiography; diagnosis; and treatment were obtained.

Results

274 areas of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake were identified. Scintigrams of 218 limbs (106 forelimbs, 112 hind limbs) were available for review. Seventy-three (33%) scintigrams had increased radiopharmaceutical uptake associated with the proximal sesamoids, 46 of 106 (43%) forelimb scintigrams had increased uptake associated with the third carpal bone, and 33 of 112 (33%) hind limb scintigrams had radiopharmaceutical uptake associated with the small tarsal bones. Forty-three of 218 (20%) scintigrams had increased uptake associated with the distal aspect of the third metacarpal and metatarsal bones. Abnormal scintigraphic uptake was bilateral in 91 of 139 (65%) forelimb locations and 99 of 134 (74%) hind limb locations with increased radiopharmaceutical uptake. The primary scintigraphically identified classifications of disease were exercise-induced bone remodeling, synovitis or arthritis, and soft-tissue avulsion from bone (66, 17, and 6% of areas with increased radiopharmaceutical uptake, respectively). Of 274 areas with increased radiopharmaceutical uptake, 244 (89%) were believed to be clinically important.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Distinctive patterns of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake were identified that suggested Standardbred horses used for racing may have a predilection to develop orthopedic disease at specific sites that are distinct from those in Thoroughbreds used for racing and horses used for jumping activities. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:982–991)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the owner-reported prevalence of behavioral characteristics in dogs obtained as puppies from pet stores with that of dogs obtained as puppies from noncommercial breeders.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—Dogs obtained as puppies from pet stores (n = 413) and breeder-obtained dogs (5,657).

Procedures—Behavioral evaluations were obtained from a large convenience sample of current dog owners with the online version of the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire, which uses ordinal scales to rate either the intensity or frequency of the dogs’ behavior. Hierarchic linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the effects of source of acquisition on behavioral outcomes when various confounding and intervening variables were controlled for.

Results—Pet store–derived dogs received significantly less favorable scores than did breeder-obtained dogs on 12 of 14 of the behavioral variables measured; pet store dogs did not score more favorably than breeder dogs in any behavioral category. Compared with dogs obtained as puppies from noncommercial breeders, dogs obtained as puppies from pet stores had significantly greater aggression toward human family members, unfamiliar people, and other dogs; greater fear of other dogs and nonsocial stimuli; and greater separation-related problems and house soiling.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Obtaining dogs from pet stores versus noncommercial breeders represented a significant risk factor for the development of a wide range of undesirable behavioral characteristics. Until the causes of the unfavorable differences detected in this group of dogs can be specifically identified and remedied, the authors cannot recommend that puppies be obtained from pet stores.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether half-udder intramammary infusion of cloxacillin results in transfer of cloxacillin from treated to untreated mammary gland quarters within nonlactating cows, and, if so, at what concentrations, and to determine whether selection of ipsilateral versus diagonal-contralateral quarters for treatment affects cloxacillin transfer among quarters.

Animals—20 Holstein-Friesian cows from a dairy herd.

Procedures—A within-cow half-udder comparison trial was used in which 2 of 4 mammary gland quarters (ipsilaterally or diagonally) received an intramammary infusion of cloxacillin on day 1 of the nonlactating period. Three days later, milk samples were taken from all untreated quarters and high-pressure liquid chromatography was used to detect and quantify milk cloxacillin concentrations.

Results—Cloxacillin was detected in 25% of all untreated mammary gland quarters. Mean cloxacillin concentration in untreated quarters was below minimum inhibitory concentrations for targeted mastitis pathogens. No significant difference in cloxacillin concentrations was found in the ipsilateral or diagonal treatment groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Within-cow half-udder comparison trials are valid for antimicrobial trials in nonlactating cows, although transfer of antimicrobials does occur in trace concentrations. Ipsilateral or diagonal-contralateral treatment designs perform similarly. This type of design is economical for researchers, although care must be taken to account for within-cow clustering of mammary gland quarter data.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the sensitivity and specificity of results of initial and repeated milk ELISAs (at 6- or 12-month intervals) to detect cows that were shedding Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (ie, were infectious) and to evaluate factors influencing the probability that the results of a repeated milk ELISA would be positive for an infectious cow if the results of the initial milk ELISA were negative.

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—3,145 dairy cows from 32 herds.

Procedures—Herds from the 3 Maritime provinces in Canada (Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia), participating in a Dairy Herd Improvement program, and that had undergone a prior Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis awareness project were selected for the study. Sample collection occurred between April 2009 and March 2011 with milk and fecal samples collected from all lactating cows in study herds every 6 months. Herds completing < 3 herd visits with collection of individual cow fecal or milk samples, within this sampling timeframe, were excluded from analyses. Fecal samples were cultured in liquid medium and a cow was defined as infectious if ≥ 1 sample was culture positive (reference test). A milk ELISA (index test) was completed with a commercial kit, following manufacturer's instructions.

Results—For a 6-month test interval, sensitivities of the milk ELISA to detect infectious cows were 22.0% and 32.6% for initial and combined initial and repeated tests (parallel interpretation), respectively. Specificity of the initial ELISA was 99.6% and was 99.2% for combined tests. For a 12-month test interval, sensitivities of the milk ELISA to detect infectious cows were 25.6% and 45.3% for initial and combined initial and repeated tests (parallel interpretation), respectively. Specificity of the initial ELISA was 99.6% and was 98.9% for combined tests. In infectious cows, magnitude of the initial negative ELISA result was a positive predictor for a positive repeated ELISA result.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of a repeated milk ELISA improved detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infectious cows, with minimal loss of specificity. A 12-month test interval provided a greater increase in sensitivity, relative to an initial test, than did a 6-month interval. Infectious cows with an initial negative milk ELISA result close to the cutoff for a positive test were more likely to have positive results on a repeated ELISA. Repeated testing improved detection of infectious cows and reduced risk of misclassification compared with a single ELISA result.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine anatomic patterns and clinical importance of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake in bones of horses used for show jumping, hunting, and eventing.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

141 horses evaluated because of lameness.

Procedure

Medical records were reviewed, and information on results of physical examination, radiography, and scintigraphy were obtained. Scintigrams were evaluated to identify areas of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake.

Results

834 areas of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake were identified. Scintigraphy of the vertebral column was performed in 78 horses, and 50 had areas of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake involving the spinous processes. Scintigraphy of the proximal phalanx of the forelimb was performed in 88 horses. Similarly, scintigraphy of the proximal phalanx of the hind limb was performed in 99 horses, and scintigrams of 374 proximal phalanges were available for review. One hundred fifty-five scintigrams had areas of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake. Scintigraphy of the tarsal joint was performed in 99 horses, and scintigrams of 198 joints were available for review. Eighty-five had areas of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake. Overall, 214 of 834 areas of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake were definitively associated with lameness.

Clinical Implications

Results of this study suggest that jumping creates unique stresses on the bones of horses. The distinctive patterns of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake identified in this study suggest that horses used for jumping may have a predilection to develop orthopedic disease at specific sites distinct from those in racehorses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:1460-1467)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether insertion of an internal teat sealer (ITS) at the end of lactation would prevent development of new intramammary infections (IMIs) during the nonlactating period.

Design—Controlled clinical trial.

Animals—939 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from 16 herds.

Procedures—Results of bacteriologic culture of milk samples collected 14 days prior to the end of lactation were used to assign cows to groups (group 1 = negative results for all quarters; group 2 = positive results for ≥ 1 quarter). Quarters of cows in group 1 were treated with an ITS or a single intramammary dose of cloxacillin; quarters of cows in group 2 were treated with cloxacillin in conjunction with an ITS or with cloxacillin alone. Milk samples were collected at the end of lactation and within 8 days after calving.

Results—Regardless of whether the outcome of interest was new IMIs caused by any pathogens, major pathogens, environmental pathogens, or streptococci other than Streptococcus agalactiae, quarters in group 2 treated with both cloxacillin and an ITS were less likely to develop a new IMI than were quarters treated with cloxacillin alone. For cows in group 1, no significant difference in risk of new IMIs was found between treatments.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that for dairy cattle with an IMI late in the lactation period, intramammary administration of cloxacillin at the end of lactation followed by insertion of an ITS enhanced protection against development of new IMIs, compared with use of cloxacillin alone.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association