Objective—To evaluate fluorescein nasolacrimal transit (NLT) times in ophthalmically normal dogs and nonbrachycephalic cats by use of 2 methods of the Jones test.
Animals—73 dogs and 36 cats.
Procedures—Fluorescein dye was applied to the ocular surface of both eyes by means of a wetted fluorescein strip and, in a subsequent test, by administration of a drop of 0.2% fluorescein solution. During each test, the nares were monitored for the appearance of fluorescein for up to 30 minutes after application. Time of fluorescein appearance at the nares was recorded as NLT time. Recorded variables for all study animals included age, reproductive status, body weight, and Schirmer tear test values. For dogs, skull index, snout length, and cephalic conformation were also recorded. Data were grouped for statistical comparisons according to test results.
Results—In both dogs and cats, NLT was faster when the fluorescein solution versus fluorescein strip was used. In cats, none of the recorded variables had a significant effect on NLT, irrespective of the testing method used. In dogs, several variables had a significant effect on NLT, including cephalic conformation, snout length, age, and reproductive status, but these findings varied with testing method and testing group.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—NLT was highly variable in dogs and cats, regardless of testing method used. Assessment of nasolacrimal patency in brachycephalic dogs by use of either method evaluated here is not likely to be clinically useful. In cats, assessment of nasolacrimal patency with the fluorescein drop method was faster and more conclusive than with the fluorescein strip method.
Objective—To determine duration of corneal anesthesia following topical administration of 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride solution in domestic shorthair (DSH) cats.
Animals—20 clinically normal DSH cats.
Procedures—Baseline corneal touch threshold (CCT) was established by use of a Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer. Treatment consisted of a single 50-μL topical application of an ophthalmic preparation of 0.5% proparacaine solution to a randomly selected eye of each cat. The corneal touch threshold was assessed 1 and 5 minutes after application to the cornea and at 5- minute intervals thereafter for 60 minutes.
Results—Corneal sensitivity, as determined by Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometry, was significantly reduced from baseline for 25 minutes following topical administration of ophthalmic proparacaine. Maximal anesthetic effect lasted 5 minutes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—As determined by Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometry, duration of anesthetic effects on the cornea induced by a single topical application of an ophthalmic preparation of 0.5% proparacaine solution in DSH cats is considerably shorter than the reported duration of corneal anesthesia in dogs.
Objective—To determine outcome of initial conservative management for primary lens luxation and evaluate topically administered demecarium bromide miotic treatment for prevention of anterior lens luxation, glaucoma, and vision loss in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—34 dogs with primary lens luxation.
Procedures—Medical records of affected dogs were reviewed for times to anterior luxation, luxation of the lens in the opposite eye, development of glaucoma, and vision loss.
Results—At 4 to 6 weeks and at 3 months after diagnosis of lens instability (subluxation or posterior luxation), 100% (34/34 and 29/29, respectively) of conservatively managed eyes retained vision. At 1 year after diagnosis of lens instability, 80% (16/20) of conservatively managed eyes retained vision, and at 2 years after diagnosis of lens instability, 11 of 19 conservatively treated eyes retained vision. The only significant effect of miotic treatment was to delay anterior lens luxation in eyes with lens instability. Miotic treatment did not significantly affect the time from anterior lens luxation in 1 eye to anterior luxation in the other eye, time to onset of glaucoma, or time to loss of vision in eyes with an unstable lens.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prophylactic topically administered miotic treatment may be effective at delaying anterior luxation of an unstable lens in eyes affected by primary lens instability. Conservative medical management of dogs with primary lens instability is a reasonable alternative to surgical removal of a subluxated or posteriorly luxated lens via intracapsular lens extraction.
Objective—To determine the duration of effect and
the effect of multiple doses of topical ophthalmic
application of 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride on
corneal sensitivity in clinically normal dogs.
Animals—8 clinically normal dogs.
Procedure—Dogs were randomly allocated to treatment
order in a 2 × 2 (period × treatment) crossover
study. Treatments consisted of topical application of
ophthalmic 0.5% proparacaine (1 drop or 2 drops at a
1-minute interval); treatments were applied to both
eyes. A Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer was used to
determine corneal touch threshold (CTT) before
corneal application, 1 and 5 minutes after corneal
application, and at 5-minute intervals thereafter for 90
Results—The CTT value before treatment differed
significantly from CTT values after treatment until 45
minutes after application in the 1-drop group and until
55 minutes after application in the 2-drop group. As
determined by use of the Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer,
a significantly greater anesthetic effect was
detected for the 2-drop treatment, compared with the
effect for the 1-drop treatment, at 30, 35, 40, 45, 50,
and 55 minutes after application. Maximal anesthetic
effect lasted for 15 minutes for the 1-drop treatment
and 25 minutes for the 2-drop treatment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Duration of
corneal anesthetic effect induced by topical ophthalmic
application of 0.5% proparacaine in dogs of
this study is considerably longer than that reported
elsewhere. Serial application of doses of 0.5%
proparacaine increases the duration and magnitude of
corneal anesthetic effects. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:77–80)
Objective—To determine prevalence of retinal hemorrhages
and microaneurysms in dogs with diabetes
mellitus following cataract extraction by means of
phacoemulsification and identify potential risk factors.
Animals—52 dogs with diabetes mellitus and 174
Procedure—Medical records of dogs undergoing
phacoemulsification between 1993 and 2003 were
reviewed, and information was recorded on signalment,
history, physical examination findings, ophthalmic
examination findings, results of laboratory
testing, electroretinographic findings, and surgical
findings. Glycemic control was classified as poor,
intermediate, or good on the basis of baseline blood
glucose concentration, perioperative body weight
loss, daily insulin dosage, and presence of glucosuria
and ketonuria. Data from diabetic and nondiabetic
dogs were analyzed to determine prevalence and risk
factors for development of retinal hemorrhages or
microaneurysms following phacoemulsification.
Results—11 of the 52 (21%) dogs with diabetes
mellitus developed ophthalmoscopic signs of retinal
hemorrhages or microaneurysms, compared with 1
of the 174 (0.6%) nondiabetic dogs. Median time
from onset of diabetes mellitus to diagnosis of
retinopathy was 1.4 years (range, 0.5 to 3.2 years).
No risk factors for development of retinopathy were
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that retinal hemorrhages and microaneurysms
may be more common and develop earlier in diabetic
dogs than previously reported. This may affect treatment,
as diabetic dogs survive longer with improved
glycemic control. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:
Objective—To determine the effects of body position on intraocular pressure (IOP) in dogs without glaucoma.
Animals—24 healthy dogs with no evidence of glaucoma.
Procedures—Dogs underwent ophthalmic examinations to ensure that no IOP-affecting ocular diseases were present. Each dog was sequentially placed in dorsal recumbency, sternal recumbency, and sitting position. For each of the 3 positions, IOP in the right eye was measured by use of an applanation tonometer immediately after positioning (0 minutes) and after 3 and 5 minutes had elapsed. The initial body position was randomly assigned; each position followed the other positions an equal number of times, and IOP measurements were initiated immediately after moving from one body position to the next. Proparacaine hydrochloride (0.5%) was applied to the right eye immediately prior to IOP measurements.
Results—Intraocular pressure was affected by body position. During the 5-minute examination, IOP decreased significantly in dogs that were dorsally recumbent or sitting but did not change significantly in dogs that were sternally recumbent. For the 3 positions, overall mean IOP differed significantly at each time point (0, 3, and 5 minutes). Mean IOP in dorsal recumbency was significantly higher than that in sternal recumbency at 0 and at 3 minutes; although the former was also higher than that in sitting position at 3 minutes, that difference was not significant.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Body position affects IOP in dogs. When IOP is measured in dogs, body position should be recorded and consistent among repeat evaluations.
Objective—To determine effects of cyclophotocoagulation
via administration of 100 J with a neodymium:
yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser on
corneal touch threshold (CTT), intraocular pressure
(IOP), aqueous tear production, and corneal nerve
morphology in eyes of dogs.
Procedure—Noncontact Nd:YAG laser was transsclerally
applied (10 applications; 25 W for 0.1 seconds for
each application to each of 4 quadrants) to the ciliary
body of the left eye of 15 dogs; the right eye was the
control eye. Corneal integrity, CTT, tear production as
measured by the Schirmer tear test (STT), and IOP were
evaluated for 14 days following laser treatment. On day
14, dogs were euthanatized, eyes harvested, and
corneas stained with gold chloride. Major nerve bundles
were analyzed by use of a drawing tube attached to a
light microscope, and maximum diameters were measured
by use of image analysis software.
Results—All laser-treated eyes had significantly higher
CTT values, compared with control eyes. Six of 15
laser-treated eyes developed ulcerative keratitis. On
most days, IOP was significantly lower in laser-treated
eyes in both morning and evening. Laser-treated
eyes had a significant decrease of approximately 1
nerve bundle/corneal quadrant. Values for STT or
nerve bundle diameters did not differ significantly.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Administration
of 100 J with a Nd:YAG laser effectively
reduced IOP while increasing CTT and caused a significant
decrease in number, but not diameter, of
major corneal nerve bundles. Nerve damage and
corneal hypoesthesia are etiologic factors in ulcerative
keratitis following Nd:YAG cyclophotocoagulation.
(Am J Vet Res 2002;63:906–915)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of topically applied 2% dorzolamide hydrochloride–0.5% timolol maleate ophthalmic solution (DHTM) on incidence and severity of postoperative ocular hypertension (POH; ie, intraocular pressure [IOP] > 25 mm Hg) in dogs undergoing cataract extraction by phacoemulsification.
DESIGN Randomized, masked, controlled study.
ANIMALS 103 dogs (180 eyes).
PROCEDURES Pertinent history, signalment, and ophthalmic examination findings were recorded. Dogs received 1 drop of DHTM or sham treatment solution (sterile, buffered, isotonic eye drops) in both eyes 14 hours and 2 hours before anesthetic induction and at the time of corneal incision closure (ie, end of surgery); IOPs were assessed by rebound tonometry 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after surgery and between 7:30 and 8:00 am on the following day. Dogs with IOPs of 26 to 45 mm Hg received 1 drop of 0.005% latanoprost solution topically; the surgeon's treatment of choice was used for dogs with IOPs > 45 mm Hg. Incidence of POH and postoperative IOPs were compared between treatment groups.
RESULTS DHTM treatment resulted in significantly lower incidence of POH than did sham treatment at the level of the dog (18/53 [34%] vs 31/50 [62%]) and the eye (24/94 [26%] vs 42/86 [48%]). Mean IOP did not differ between groups at the time of POH detection. The DHTM-treated eyes that developed POH were significantly more likely to have a 1-hour follow-up IOP < 25 mm Hg after latanoprost administration than were sham-treated eyes (19/25 [76%] vs 18/35 [51%]; OR, 3.87).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Multidose perioperative administration of DHTM in dogs undergoing phacoemulsification reduced the incidence of POH and improved responsiveness of POH to latanoprost treatment.
Objective—To determine clinical features, diagnostic
imaging abnormalities, underlying disease, disease
progression, and outcome in dogs with bilateral cavernous
Procedure—Dogs were included if clinical signs consistent
with bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome (ie,
deficits of the third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerves
and at least 1 of the first 2 branches of the fifth cranial
nerve) were present and a lesion of the cavernous
sinus was identified by means of diagnostic imaging
or postmortem examination.
Results—5 dogs were evaluated because of problems
referable to abnormal ocular motility or pupillomotor
dysfunction, and 1 dog was evaluated because
of partial motor seizures involving the face and bilateral
mydriasis. Four dogs had neurologic signs referable
to an extrasinusoidal lesion at the time of initial
examination, and the remaining 2 dogs eventually
developed extrasinusoidal signs. Besides neuroanatomic
location, the only consistent neuroimaging
feature was variably intense, heterogeneous
enhancement of cavernous sinus lesions. Neoplasia
was histologically confirmed as the underlying cause
in 5 of the dogs and was suspected in the remaining
dog. Median survival time for the 4 dogs that were
treated was 199 days (range, 16 to 392 days).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome is rare in
dogs but should be suspected in dogs with compatible
clinical signs. Affected dogs have a poor prognosis, and
dogs with clinical signs of bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome
should be systematically evaluated for neoplastic
disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1105–1111)