Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for

  • Author or Editor: Ian G. Mayhew x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search


Objective—To determine the distribution of nerve fibers containing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and intermediate neurofilaments in nasal mucosa of horses.

Animals—6 horses without evidence of nasal disease.

Procedure—Full-thickness nasal tissue specimens were obtained from the rostral portion of the nasal septum at necropsy, and fluorescence immunohistochemistry was performed to assess mucosal distribution of nerve fibers.

Results—Nerve fibers with CGRP-like immunoreactivity (CGRP-Li) formed a dense subepithelial network, and a large number of fibers were found coursing between epithelial cells. Fibers with CGRP-Li were also associated with blood vessels and mucous glands. Fibers with SP-like immunoreactivity (SP-Li) had a similar distribution and density. In contrast, there were few fibers with VIP-like immunoreactivity. Fibers containing intermediate neurofilaments were prominent and appeared as large nerve fiber bundles mainly adjacent to the nasal septum but also close to mucous glands and within the lamina propria. Intermediate neurofilaments were also identified in single nerve fibers at all sites, but the density of fibers with intermediate neurofilaments did not match that of fibers with CGRP- or SP-Li.

Conclusions—The density and distribution of nerve fibers containing SP- or CGRP-Li in nasal mucosa of horses was similar to that reported for other species. However, expression of VIP in nerve fibers was low. Antibodies against intermediate neurofilaments identified many nerve fibers in nasal mucosa of horses but did not appear to identify small diameter fibers expressing SP or VIP. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1619–1624)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate the effect of intermittent oral administration of ponazuril on immunoconversion against Sarcocystis neurona in horses inoculated intragastrically with S neurona sporocysts.

Animals—20 healthy horses that were seronegative for S neurona–specific IgG.

Procedures—5 control horses were neither inoculated with sporocysts nor treated. Other horses (5 horses/group) each received 612,500 S neurona sporocysts via nasogastric tube (day 0) and were not treated or were administered ponazuril (20 mg/kg, PO) every 7 days (beginning on day 5) or every 14 days (beginning on day 12) for 12 weeks. Blood and CSF samples were collected on day – 1 and then every 14 days after challenge for western blot assessment of immunoconversion. Clinical signs of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) were monitored, and tissues were examined histologically after euthanasia.

Results—Sera from all challenged horses yielded positive western blot results within 56 days. Immunoconversion in CSF was detected in only 2 of 5 horses that were treated weekly; all other challenged horses immunoconverted within 84 days. Weekly administration of ponazuril significantly reduced the antibody response against the S neurona 17-kd antigen in CSF. Neurologic signs consistent with EPM did not develop in any group; likewise, histologic examination of CNS tissue did not reveal protozoa or consistent degenerative or inflammatory changes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of ponazuril every 7 days, but not every 14 days, significantly decreased intrathecal anti–S neurona antibody responses in horses inoculated with S neurona sporocysts. Protocols involving intermittent administration of ponazuril may have application in prevention of EPM.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research