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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the clinical presentation, novel surgical approach, and outcome of a dog diagnosed with chondro-osseous respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma (COREAH).

ANIMAL

5-year-old castrated male Yorkshire Terrier.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION, PROGRESSION, AND PROCEDURES

The dog was presented with chronic upper respiratory noise, congestion, facial swelling, ocular discharge, and an abscess on the nasal bridge. Two CT scans were performed 4 months apart. The CT scans yielded similar results: cyst-like nasal masses with severely destructive bilateral rhinitis with extensive polyostotic bony lysis. A dorsal rhinotomy with a turbinectomy and debridement of the nasal cavity were performed. A poorly defined but extensive lesion was found occupying the entirety of the left frontal sinus as well as the nasal cavity.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Histopathology revealed a mass consistent with COREAH. The dog recovered well from surgery, except for self-limiting subcutaneous emphysema, and 3 weeks postoperatively was reportedly doing well, with mild nasal discharge. Stridor, nasal discharge, and sneezing episodes were reported postoperatively; however, these were improved. At 18 months postoperatively, the dog died from uncontrolled seizures while hospitalized for suspected acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome at a different hospital.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

COREAH should be considered a potential cause of destructive bilateral rhinitis and bony lysis in dogs. Dorsal rhinotomy can be a surgical treatment for dogs with possible COREAH with acceptable outcome, though complete remission of clinical signs may not be achieved. This is the first clinical description of COREAH in a dog.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the incidence of complications in the intraoperative and postoperative period for dogs undergoing nephrectomy for renal disease.

ANIMALS

69 dogs.

METHODS

Medical records of dogs undergoing nephrectomies for renal disease were reviewed for signalment, date of surgery, results of blood analyses, and intra- and postoperative complications. Long-term follow-up was obtained via client telephone interview or referring veterinarian medical records. A Fisher exact test was used to assess the relationship between postoperative acute kidney injury and NSAID administration with long-term development of chronic kidney disease.

RESULTS

Complications occurred in 44.9% and 42.6% of dogs in the intraoperative and postoperative periods, respectively. Most of these were lower-grade complications, though a total of 7 dogs died during the postoperative period. An acute kidney injury was diagnosed in 12 dogs postoperatively, with 2 dogs euthanized due to the severity of the injury. Long-term follow-up was available for 53 dogs, with 24 (45.3%) dogs developing chronic kidney disease. Postoperative acute kidney injury (P = .385) and NSAID administration (P = .519) were not statistically associated with the development of chronic kidney disease in this population.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Unilateral nephrectomy is associated with high intraoperative and postoperative complication rates in dogs. Chronic kidney disease was diagnosed in almost 50% of the population with available long-term follow-up.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess factors associated with increased pleural fluid and air evacuation, longer duration of thoracostomy tube usage, and longer hospitalization in dogs and cats following surgery for thoracic neoplasms.

ANIMALS

62 dogs and 10 cats.

METHODS

Medical records were reviewed for dogs and cats undergoing thoracic surgeries between August 1, 2019, and June 30, 2023, for resection of suspected neoplasia in which a thoracostomy tube was placed. Data collected included patient signalment, type of procedure performed, histologic diagnosis of the primary mass removed, volume of fluid and air evacuated from the thoracostomy tube, and time in hospital.

RESULTS

Median sternotomy was associated with increased total fluid evacuation (median, 12.1 mL/kg; IQR, 15.4 mL/kg; P = .012), whereas rib resection was associated with increased total air evacuation (median, 2.1 mL/kg; IQR, 13.6 mL/kg; P = .06). The presence of preoperative pleural effusion was associated with higher total fluid evacuation (20.6 mL/kg; IQR, 32.1 mL/kg; P = .009), longer duration with a thoracostomy tube in place (42.5 hours; IQR, 41.9 hours; P = .027), and longer hospitalization period (61 hours; IQR, 52.8 hours; P = .025). Cats had a thoracostomy tube in place for a longer time compared to dogs (median, 42.6 hours; IQR, 23.5 hours; P = .043).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Animals undergoing median sternotomy and rib resection may be expected to have higher fluid and air volumes, respectively, evacuated postoperatively. This often leads to an increased duration of thoracostomy tube usage and a longer period of hospitalization.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report the survival times in dogs diagnosed with adrenal tumors with vascular or soft tissue invasion that did not undergo adrenalectomy.

ANIMALS

Retrospective case series of 32 client-owned dogs.

METHODS

The medical records of a referral veterinary hospital were reviewed to identify dogs that were diagnosed with an invasive adrenal mass and did not undergo adrenalectomy between January 2013 and December 2022. Data collected included signalment, examination findings, and diagnostic results from the initial presentation. Descriptive statistics were calculated to summarize dog signalment information, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed for calculation of median survival time.

RESULTS

Most dogs (n = 28) had vascular invasion, primarily into the caudal vena cava. Surgery was offered but not pursued due to perceived risk of sudden death (n = 5), risk of hemorrhage (4), or concurrent diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (1). Only 1 dog pursued stereotactic body radiation therapy, and 1 was prescribed toceranib phosphate (Palladia). Of these 32 dogs, 30 (93.8%) died or were euthanized and 2 (6.2%) dogs survived. The median follow-up time was 49 days (range, 0 to 1,910 days). The median survival time was 50 days (95% CI, 4 to 194 days). The most common cause of death or euthanasia was hemoabdomen (n = 8).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Nonsurgical management of invasive adrenal tumors was associated with short survival times in this case series.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the management of extensive hepatectomy in 2 dogs.

ANIMALS

A 10-year-old female intact mixed-breed dog (case 1) and an 11-year-old male castrated mixed-breed dog (case 2) were presented for surgical evaluation following diagnosis of a hepatic mass.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION, PROGRESSION, AND PROCEDURES

16 months before presentation, case 1 had undergone a left lateral liver lobectomy, which resulted in an incomplete resection of hepatocellular carcinoma. Both dogs underwent surgical excision of the liver mass.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

In case 1, surgery consisted of the removal of the remaining left medial lobe, as well as the central division. Case 2 received a complete left and central division hepatectomy. Histopathology confirmed a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in both dogs. Liver enzyme resolution and lack of tumor recurrence were confirmed with chemistry panel and abdominal ultrasonography in both dogs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This case report describes, for the first time, the clinical management and outcome of extensive hepatectomy in 2 dogs. We propose that extensive hepatectomy, staged or synchronous, is possible in a clinical setting.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association