Objective—To evaluate use of electroacupuncture for
treatment of horses with signs of chronic thoracolumbar
Animals—15 horses with signs of chronic thoracolumbar
Procedure—Horses were randomly allocated to 1 of
3 treatment groups. Horses in group 1 received electroacupuncture
stimulation (once every 3 days for 5
treatments), those in group 2 received phenylbutazone
(2.2 mg/kg [1 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h, for 5 days), and
those in group 3 received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution
(20 mL, PO, q 12 h, for 5 days). Thoracolumbar pain
scores (TPSs) were evaluated before (baseline) and
after each treatment.
Results—Mean ± SE TPSs in horses receiving
phenylbutazone or saline solution did not change significantly
during the study. After the third treatment,
mean ± SE TPS (2.1 ± 0.6) in horses receiving electroacupuncture
stimulation was significantly lower
than baseline (6.0 ± 0.6) TPS. Mean ± SE TPSs in
horses receiving electroacupuncture stimulation
were significantly lower than baseline TPSs and TPSs
in horses receiving phenylbutazone or saline solution
after the third treatment to 14 days after the last
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—TPSs are useful
for evaluating the efficacy of various analgesic methods
used for treatment of thoracolumbar pain in horses.
Electroacupuncture was effective for treatment of
chronic thoracolumbar pain in horses. Results provided
evidence that 3 sessions of electroacupuncture treatment
can successfully alleviate signs of thoracolumbar
pain in horses. The analgesic effect induced by electroacupuncture
can last at least 2 weeks. Phenylbutazone
administered PO did not effectively alleviate signs
of thoracolumbar pain in horses in this study. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:281–286)
Objective—To evaluate effects of maropitant, acepromazine, and electroacupuncture on morphine-related signs of nausea and vomiting in dogs and assess sedative effects of the treatments.
Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.
Procedures—Dogs received 1 of 6 treatments: injection of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, maropitant citrate, or acepromazine maleate or electroacupuncture treatment at 1 acupoint, 5 acupoints, or a sham acupoint. Morphine was administered after 20 minutes of electroacupuncture treatment or 20 minutes after injectable treatment. Vomiting and retching events and signs of nausea and sedation were recorded.
Results—Incidence of vomiting and retching was significantly lower in the maropitant (14/37 [37.8%]) group than in the saline solution (28/37 [75.7%]) and sham-acupoint electroacupuncture (32/37 [86.5%]) groups. The number of vomiting and retching events in the maropitant (21), acepromazine (38), 1-acupoint (35), and 5-acupoint (34) groups was significantly lower than in the saline solution (88) and sham-acupoint electroacupuncture (109) groups. Incidence of signs of nausea was significantly lower in the acepromazine group (3/37 [8.1%]) than in the sham-acupoint group (15/37 [40.5%]). Mean nausea scores for the saline solution, maropitant, and sham-acupoint electroacupuncture groups increased significantly after morphine administration, whereas those for the acepromazine, 1-acupoint electroacupuncture, and 5-acupoint electroacupuncture groups did not. Mean sedation scores after morphine administration were significantly higher in dogs that received acepromazine than in dogs that received saline solution, maropitant, and sham-acupoint electroacupuncture treatment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Maropitant treatment was associated with a lower incidence of vomiting and retching, compared with control treatments, and acepromazine and electroacupuncture appeared to prevent an increase in severity of nausea following morphine administration in dogs.
Objective—To evaluate the reliability of a method for
inducing colic via small intestinal distention in horses
and to examine the analgesic potential of bilateral
electroacupuncture (EAP) at the Guan-yuan-shu (similar
to BL-21) acupoint.
Animals—5 healthy adult horses, each with a gastric
Procedure—A polyester balloon connected to an electronic
barostat was introduced into the duodenum via
the gastric cannula. At 2 specified intervals (before and
after commencement of EAP), the balloon was inflated
to a barostat-controlled pressure that induced signs of
moderate colic. Each inflation was maintained for 10
minutes. Heart and respiratory rates were continuously
recorded. Frequency of various clinical signs of colic was
recorded by 2 trained observers during various combinations
of balloon inflation and EAP. Each horse received
each of 5 treatment protocols (EAP at 20 Hz, sham EAP
at 20 Hz, EAP at 80 : 120 Hz dense:disperse, sham EAP
at 80 : 120 Hz dense:disperse, no treatment). Sham EAP
was at a point located 2 cm lateral to the Guan-yuan-shu
Results—Duodenal distention consistently induced a
significant increase in frequency of signs of colic.
None of the EAP protocols caused a significant reduction
in frequency of these clinical signs during distention.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The method
described is reproducible and highly controllable
method for inducing colic that involved duodenal distention
that should be useful in evaluating the efficacy
of various analgesic strategies. Bilateral EAP at the
Guan-yuan-shu acupoint was ineffective in reducing
signs of discomfort induced by this method. (Am J Vet