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Objective

To determine a dose of medetomidine that will induce sedation in llamas, to assess effects of medetomidine sedation on arterial blood gas variables, and to determine efficacy of atipamezole in reversing medetomidine-induced sedation.

Design

Prospective, randomized clinical trial.

Animals

15 clinically normal adult llamas.

Procedure

9 llamas received various doses of medetomidine (0.01, 0.02, or 0.03 mg/kg [0.005, 0.009, or 0.014 mg/lb] of body weight, IM). Heart and respiratory rates and sedative effects were recorded. Using the lowest dose that induced deep sedation, 6 different llamas were used to assess effects of medetomidine on arterial blood gas variables. These same 6 llamas were later given atipamezole (0.125 mg/kg [0.057 mg/lb], IV) 30 minutes after medetomidine injection. Heart and respiratory rates, sedative effects, and time from atipamezole injection to standing were recorded.

Results

Sedation began 6.67 ± 1.15 minutes (mean ± SD) after medetomidine administration (0.03 mg/kg, IM). Arterial blood gas variables measured 30 and 60 minutes after injection were not different from baseline. Llamas that did not receive atipamezole remained recumbent for 91.50 ± 24.68 minutes. After atipamezole administration, llamas were able to stand in 5.80 ± 3.27 minutes.

Clinical Implications

Medetomidine induced light to deep sedation in a dose-dependent manner in clinically normal llamas. A dose of 0.03 mg/kg induced deep sedation with a short period of analgesia. Atipamezole rapidly reversed effects of medetomidine, and llamas recovered quickly and were soon able to stand. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1562–1565)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Hemostasis was evaluated in cows with experimentally induced endotoxemia and mastitis, caused by intramammary infusion of endotoxin (1 mg) derived from Escherichia coli. Hemostatic tests included prothrombin time; activated partial thromboplastin time; thrombin time; fibrinogen, fibrin(ogen) degradation products, and platelet concentrations; and antithrombin-III and plasminogen activities. Significant alterations were observed in the mean values of most analytes (prothrombin time was increased; thrombin time was increased with subsequent decrease; activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen concentration, plasminogen activity, and platelet concentration were decreased; and antithrombin-III activity and fibrin(ogen) degradation products concentration were unchanged) at 1 or more postchallenge sample collection times (3, 12, or 24 hours) after endotoxin administration, compared with mean values obtained from samples prior to endotoxin administration. These data indicated activation of hemostatic mechanisms, initiated either directly by endotoxin or by inflammatory mediators released or produced in response to endotoxin infusion.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare image quality and acquisition time of corneal and retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) under 3 different sedation-anesthesia conditions in horses.

ANIMALS

6 middle-aged geldings free of ocular disease.

PROCEDURES

1 randomly selected eye of each horse was evaluated via SD-OCT under the following 3 conditions: standing sedation without retrobulbar anesthetic block (RB), standing sedation with RB, and general anesthesia with RB. Five regions of interest were evaluated in the cornea (axial and 12, 3, 6, and 9 o’clock positions) and fundus (optic nerve head). Three diagnostic scans of predetermined quality were obtained per anatomical region. Image acquisition times and total scans per site were recorded. Corneal and retinal SD-OCT image quality was graded on a subjective scale from 0 (nondiagnostic) to 4 (excellent).

RESULTS

Mean values for the standing sedation without RB, standing sedation with RB, and general anesthesia conditions were 24, 23, and 17, respectively, for total cornea scan attempts; 23, 19, and 19 for total retina-scan attempts; 14.6, 13.2, and 9.2 minutes for total cornea scan time; 19.1, 9.2, and 13.0 for total retina scan time; 2.0, 2.3, and 2.5 for cornea grade; and 2.7, 2.9, and 2.5 for retina grade.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The RB facilitated globe akinesia and improved the percentage of scans in frame and region of interest accuracy for retinal imaging via OCT in horses. Retrobulbar blocks improved clinical image acquisition while minimizing motion artifact.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the cardiopulmonary and clinicopathologic effects of rapid IV administration of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in awake and halothaneanesthetized horses.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—6 adult horses.

Procedures—Horses received IV infusion of 5 L of a balanced electrolyte solution with and without 1 g/kg (0.45 g/lb) of 10% DMSO solution when they were awake and anesthetized with halothane (4 treatments/ horse). Arterial and venous blood samples were collected immediately before and at intervals during or after fluid administration and analyzed for blood gases and hematologic and serum biochemical variables, respectively. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and arterial blood pressure variables were recorded prior to, during, and after fluid administration.

Results—After administration of fluid with or without DMSO, changes in measured variables were detected immediately, but most variables returned to baseline values within 4 hours. One awake control horse had signs of anxiety; agitation and tachycardia were detected in 2 awake horses administered DMSO. These clinical signs disappeared when the rate of infusion was reduced. In anesthetized horses, increased concentrations of WBCs and plasma fibrinogen and serum creatine kinase activity persisted for 24 hours, which was related to the stress of anesthesia more than the effects of fluid administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Infusion of 5 L of balanced electrolyte solution with or without 10% DMSO induced minimal changes in cardiopulmonary function and clinicopathologic variables in either awake or halothane-anesthetized horses. Stress associated with anesthesia and recovery had a greater influence on measured variables in anesthetized horses than fluid administration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:560–566)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Objective

To evaluate analgesic effects after epidural administration of medetomidine to cows, compared with effects of lidocaine hydrochloride and 0.9% NaCI solution.

Animals

6 adult beef cows.

Procedure

3 treatments were administered to each cow, with a 1-week interval between subsequent treatments. Treatments consisted of 5 ml of physiologic saline (0.9% NaCI) solution; 0.2 mg of lidocaine/kg of body weight, not to exceed 100 mg (5 ml); and 15 μg of medetomidine/kg, diluted with 0.9% NaCI solution to provide a volume of 5 ml. Epidural injections were given in the first or second coccygeal space. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and arterial blood pressure values were recorded before injection, 5 and 10 minutes after injection, and at 10-minute intervals thereafter. Onset and duration of analgesia, sedation, and ataxia were recorded. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to detect differences between treatments.

Results

Epidural administration of 0.9% NaCI solution did not induce analgesia. Lidocaine induced analgesia within 5 to 20 minutes, which lasted 10 to 115 minutes (mean ± SD, 43.3 ± 37.2 minutes). Heart rate decreased during lidocaine-induced analgesia. Heart and respiratory rates decreased, but blood pressure remained unchanged, after medetomidine administration. Medetomidine induced analgesia within 5 to 10 minutes, which lasted 412 ± 156 minutes. Mild to moderate sedation and moderate ataxia were observed. Two cows became recumbent, but were easily coaxed to stand. Medetomidine-induced salivation and increased frequency of urination were observed in all cows.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Epidural administration of medetomidine induced prolonged analgesia that was suitable for perineal surgery, post-operative analgesia, and relief of continuous straining. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:162–167)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To describe 3 laparoscopic approaches for, and the normal laparoscopic anatomy of, the abdomen in adult llamas and to evaluate the effects of laparoscopy in those llamas.

Design

Prospective clinical trial.

Animals

Six adult castrated male llamas.

Procedure

After induction of general anesthesia, 3 surgical approaches to the abdomen were performed: left paralumbar, ventral midline, and right paralumbar. The abdomen was systematically examined, and anatomic features described. After recovery from anesthesia, all llamas were examined daily for 10 days and CBC was repeated 24, 72, and 120 hours after laparoscopy.

Results

Laparoscopy was successfully performed in all llamas by use of the ventral midline and right paralumbar approaches. The laparoscope was inadvertently placed into the left retroperitoneal space in 1 of the 6 llamas when the left paralumbar approach was used. Also, hemorrhage into the abdomen limited the view from the left side in another llama. Various approaches allowed viewing of the first and third forestomach compartments, liver, spleen, kidneys, small intestine, ileum, proximal loop of the ascending colon, spiral colon, and urinary bladder. Postoperative findings included subcutaneous emphysema and edema. Mean WBC count peaked 24 hours after surgery (mean, 23,500 cells/μl). Generally, neutrophil count increased and lymphocyte count decreased during the 120 hours after surgery.

Clinical Implications

Laparoscopy may be used for differentiation of medical and surgical lesions in the abdomen of llamas. The site for laparoscopy should be chosen on the basis of the most likely site of the suspected lesion.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Milk production was monitored in 16 cows for 6 milkings after intramammary infusion of 1 mg of endotoxin in a single forequarter. The cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups; 8 cows were treated with isotonic saline solution and 8 cows were treated with hypertonic saline solution. Saline solutions were administered IV (5 ml/kg of body weight) 4 hours after infusion of endotoxin. Mean cumulative change in milk yield and interval change in milk yield were greater in cows treated with isotonic saline solution than in cows treated with hypertonic saline solution. Significant differences between treatment groups were not detected.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Anesthesia was induced and maintained in 6 Suffolk wethers by continuous iv infusion of guaifenesin (50 mg/ml), ketamine (1 mg/ml), and xylazine (0.1 mg/ml) in 5% dextrose in water (triple drip) to assess the anesthetic and cardiopulmonary effects. All sheep were positioned in right lateral recumbency. Dosages of triple drip used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia were 1.2 ± 0.02 ml/kg and 2.6 ml/kg/h, respectively. Lack of gross purposeful movement of sheep to electrical stimulation indicated that analgesia and muscular relaxation induced by triple trip were adequate for surgical procedures. Heart rates and arterial blood pressure remained unchanged from baseline values during a 1-hour period of anesthesia. Arterial blood pressures were measured indirectly, using an inflation cuff placed over the metatarsal artery at the heart level. Significant decrease in arterial partial pressure of O2 (Pao2 ), coupled with an increase in arterial partial pressure of CO2 (Paco2 ), from baseline values was observed throughout the course of the study. Decrease in Pao2 was observed concomitantly with significant (P < 0.05) increase in respiration rate. Changes in arterial blood gas tensions observed in this study were attributed to respiratory depressant effect induced by anesthetic drugs and right-to-left shunting, perfusion/ventilation mismatch, or both caused by right lateral recumbency. Administration of 100% O2 via the endotracheal tube reduced the magnitude of the decrease in Pao2 . All sheep recovered smoothly and stood within 96.3 ± 48.9 minutes after termination of triple drip administration

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

We characterized the clinicopathologic manifestations of experimentally induced endotoxin-induced mastitis. Responses to hypertonic fluid therapy also were assessed. Eight cows received 1 mg of endotoxin by intramammary infusion in the left forequarter. Four hours after endotoxin administration, cows received 0.9% NaCl, 5 ml/kg of body weight (n = 4) or 7.5% NaCl, 5 ml/kg (n = 4) IV. Endotoxin-infused cows had expanded plasma volume, hyponatremia, transient hyperchloremia and hypophosphatemia, increased serum glucose concentration, and decreased serum activities of liver- and muscle-specific enzymes. Calculated plasma volume increased at 6 hours in cows receiving hypertonic NaCl, and at 12, 24, and 48 hours after endotoxin infusion in both groups. Concurrent observations of decreased serum protein concentration, erythrocyte count, and hematocrit supported observations of increased plasma volume. Relative plasma volume was greater in cows receiving hypertonic NaCl (124.3%) than in cows receiving isotonic NaCl (106.6%) at 6 hours after endotoxin infusion. Cattle receiving hypertonic NaCl had increased voluntary water intake after iv fluid administration. Increased water consumption was not accompanied by increased body weight, indicating probable occurence of offsetting body water loss. Serum sodium concentration in cows receiving hypertonic NaCl was increased 2 hours after fluid administration, but the magnitude of the change was minimal (< 4 mmol/L) and transient, indicating rapid equilibration with either interstitial or intracellular spaces. Serum sodium concentration was decreased in cows receiving isotonic NaCl at 12, 24, and 48 hours after endotoxin administration, compared with concentration prior to endotoxin adminstration, indicating selective loss of sodium.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research