To establish a method for evaluation of the efficacy of a classical swine fever virus (CSFV) subunit vaccine in rabbits as determined via humoral immune responses to the virus.
40 specific pathogen–free rabbits.
Rabbits were randomly assigned to 4 groups (10 rabbits/group) for SC injection of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mL of a CSFV subunit E2 vaccine (representing 1.15, 2.3, or 4.6 μg of E2 protein/dose, respectively) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Blood samples were collected 21 days after vaccination for measurement of the antibody response against CSFV via ELISA and virus neutralization methods. On the same day, the CSFV Chinese (C) strain was injected into an ear vein. Vaccine efficacy was determined by monitoring of rabbits for pyrexia for 4 days and measurement of viral copies in spleen lysates at the end of the study. Reproducibility of the antibody response was tested with 2 other batches of the vaccine at the minimum immunization dose identified for the initially tested batch.
The E2 protein dose of the initially tested vaccine was positively correlated with the antibody response and protection rate in rabbits. The identified minimum immunization dose per rabbit was 0.1 mL, representing an E2 protein content of approximately 2.3 μg, and reproducibility of the antibody response to vaccination with the 2 other batches at this dose was good.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
A method was established in rabbits for evaluation of the efficacy of a CSFV subunit vaccine that could help in the optimization of later large-scale vaccine production and quality control processes as well as in the clinical application of the vaccine.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate a hypervariable octameric oligonucleotide fingerprints (HOOF-Prints) assay for identification of and discrimination between wild-type and vaccine strains of Brucella melitensis.
SAMPLEBrucella melitensis vaccine strain M5 and wild-type strain M43.
PROCEDURES 8 pairs of primers (alterable, octameric nucleotides) were designed on the basis of a biological analysis of 8 flanking sequences in the DNA of B melitensis. The HOOF-Prints technique was used to identify wild-type and vaccine strains of B melitensis. Phylogenetic analysis of short, polymorphic fragments of DNA from B melitensis strains M5 and M43 was performed.
RESULTS Variable-number tandem repeat DNA segments of B melitensis vaccine strain M5 and wild-type strain M43 were successfully amplified by means of PCR assay. All target gene fragments ranged in size from 100 to 300 bp. Separate phylogenetic analysis of each Brucella strain revealed considerable differences between the vaccine and wild-type strains.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The results of this study suggested the HOOF-Prints assay may be useful for discriminating vaccine strains of B melitensis from wild-type strains. This ability could allow discrimination between animals that are seropositive because of vaccination against B melitensis and those that are seropositive because of B melitensis infection and could decrease the likelihood of importing Brucella-infected animals.
Orthohantaviruses (genus Orthohantavirus, family Hantaviridae of order Bunyavirales) are rodent-borne viruses causing 2 human diseases: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), which are mainly prevalent in Eurasia and the Americas, respectively. We initiated this study to investigate and analyze the Orthohantaviruses infection in rodent reservoirs and humans in the Hubei Province of China from 1984 to 2010.
The study included 10,314 mouse and 43,753 human serum samples.
In this study, we analyzed the incidence of Orthohantavirus infection in humans and observed changes in rodent reservoirs in Hubei Province.
The results indicated that although the incidence of HFRS declined from the 1990s, the human inapparent infection did not decrease dramatically. Although elements of the disease ecology have changed over the study period, Apodemus agrarius and Rattus norvegicus remain the major species and a constituent ratio of Rattus norvegicus increased. Rodent population density fluctuated between 16.65% and 2.14%, and decreased quinquennially, showing an obvious downward trend in recent years. The average orthohantaviruses-carrying rate was 6.36%, of which the lowest rate was 2.92% from 2006 to 2010. The analysis of rodent species composition showed that Rattus norvegicus and Apodemus agrarius were the dominant species over time (68.6% [1984 to 1987] and 90.4% [2000 to 2011]), while the composition and variety of other species decreased. The density of rodents was closely related to the incidence of HFRS (r = 0.910, P = .032).
Our long-term investigation demonstrated that the occurrence of HFRS is closely related to rodent demographic patterns. Therefore, rodent monitoring and rodent control measures for prevention against HFRS in Hubei are warranted.