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  • Author or Editor: Hsin-Yi Weng x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the proportion of and risk factors for open fractures of the appendicular skeleton in dogs and cats that were a result of acute trauma.

Design—Cross-sectional and case-control study.

Animals—84,629 dogs and 26,675 cats.

Procedures—Dogs and cats examined at Purdue University Veterinary Teaching Hospital from January 1993 through February 2013 were identified; the proportion of open fractures was estimated from the medical records. Additionally, all incident cases of open (77 dogs and 33 cats) and closed (469 dogs and 80 cats) fractures between January 1993 and February 2013 and a random sample of nonfracture patients (722 dogs and 330 cats) in 2010 were used to assess risk factors for open appendicular fractures.

Results—Proportion of open fractures for the 20-year period was 0.09% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07% to 0.11%) in dogs and 0.12% (95% CI, 0.09% to 0.17%) in cats. Seventy-seven of 546 (14.1%) and 33 of 113 (29.2%) traumatic fractures were classified as open in dogs and cats, respectively. Comminuted fractures were more likely than other configurations to be open in dogs (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 2.9 to 12.2) and cats (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.0 to 12.0). Vehicle-related trauma was a significant risk factor for open fractures in dogs (OR, 13.8; 95% CI, 3.1 to 61.8).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The proportion of incident open fractures in dogs and cats was low. Age, body weight, affected bone or bone segment, fracture configuration, and method of trauma were associated with an open fracture.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate and compare the anesthetic, analgesic, and cardiorespiratory effects of tiletamine-zolazepam-detomidine-butorphanol (TZDB), tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine-butorphanol (TZXB), and ketamine-detomidine-butorphanol (KDB) in pigs and to assess anesthetic recovery duration and quality following administration of tolazoline as a reversal agent.

ANIMALS

11 healthy 2.5-month-old castrated male Landrace mixed-breed pigs.

PROCEDURES

In a randomized, blinded crossover study design, pigs received the following anesthetic combinations, IM: TZDB (tiletamine-zolazepam [3 mg/kg {1.36 mg/lb}], detomidine [0.18 mg/kg {0.08 mg/lb}], and butorphanol [0.12 mg/kg {0.05 mg/lb}]); TZXB (tiletamine-zolazepam [4 mg/kg {1.8 mg/lb}], xylazine [4 mg/kg], and butorphanol [0.2 mg/kg {0.09 mg/lb}]); and KDB (ketamine [8 mg/kg {3.63 mg/lb}], detomidine [0.18 mg/kg], and butorphanol [0.3 mg/kg {0.14 mg/lb}]). A 7-day washout period was provided between treatments. At 45 minutes of anesthesia, pigs received tolazoline (2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/lb], IM; n = 6) treatment or control (5) treatment with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution.

RESULTS

All anesthetic combinations induced anesthesia. Endotracheal intubation was completed within 5 minutes after anesthetic administration in all pigs, except in 2 pigs following administration of KDB. Durations (mean ± SD) of endotracheal intubation and lateral recumbency in pigs that did not receive tolazoline were 55.3 ± 4.8 minutes, 83.8 ± 15.8 minutes, and 28.2 ± 4.5 minutes and 112.4 ± 18.7 minutes, 117.2 ± 16.7 minutes, and 79.7 ± 6.0 minutes, respectively, for the TZDB, TZXB, and KDB anesthetic treatments. Tolazoline significantly shortened the duration of anesthetic recovery for all anesthetic treatments without affecting the recovery quality.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

All 3 anesthetic combinations were suitable for providing anesthesia in pigs. Tolazoline administration shortened the duration of anesthetic recovery without affecting the quality of recovery.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare the anticollagenase efficacy of fresh feline, canine, and equine serum and plasma on in vitro corneal degradation.

SAMPLE Grossly normal corneas from recently euthanized dogs, cats, and horses and fresh serum and plasma from healthy dogs, cats, and horses.

PROCEDURES Serum and plasma were pooled by species and used for in vitro experiments. Corneas were collected and stored at −80°C. Sections of cornea were dried, weighed, and incubated in saline (0.9% NaCl) solution with clostridial collagenase and homologous fresh serum or plasma. Corneal degradation was assessed as the percentage of corneal weight loss and hydroxyproline concentration, compared with results for positive and negative control samples.

RESULTS Homologous fresh serum and plasma significantly reduced the percentage of corneal weight loss, compared with results for positive control samples. No significant difference was found in percentage of corneal weight loss between incubation with serum or plasma for feline, canine, and equine corneas. Canine serum and plasma significantly reduced hydroxyproline concentrations, whereas inclusion of feline and equine serum or plasma did not, compared with results for positive control samples. Hydroxyproline concentrations were moderately correlated with percentage of corneal weight loss for feline samples and weakly correlated for equine samples, but they were not correlated for canine samples.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, the anticollagenase efficacy of fresh feline, canine, and equine serum was not different from that of plasma. Plasma should be an acceptable substitute for serum in the topical treatment of keratomalacia.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate species differences and effects of storage duration and temperature on the anticollagenase efficacy of canine, feline, and equine serum on in vitro corneal degradation.

SAMPLES Corneas and serum from dogs, cats, and horses.

PROCEDURES Clinically normal corneas from dogs, cats, and horses were harvested within 2 hours after euthanasia. Serum samples from dogs, cats, and horses were collected and pooled by species. Corneal specimens were incubated with collagenase derived from Clostridium histolyticum, 5mM calcium chloride in saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, and feline, canine, or equine serum that had been stored for 0, 30, 90, or 180 days at −20° or −80°C. Following incubation, the corneal weight loss percentage and hydroxyproline concentration in the incubation fluid were calculated and compared among experimental combinations.

RESULTS Feline serum was more effective than canine or equine serum for minimizing corneal weight loss. Incubation with feline or equine, but not canine, serum significantly reduced hydroxyproline production. Serum storage duration did not affect corneal weight loss, but the hydroxyproline concentration was greater for corneal specimens that were incubated with serum that was stored for 90 days, compared with that for corneal specimens incubated with serum that was stored for 0, 30, or 180 days. Serum storage temperature did not affect corneal weight loss or hydroxyproline concentration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that serum reduced corneal degradation in vitro, and the duration and temperature at which serum was stored did not affect its anticollagenase efficacy.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To establish the dose-dependent effects of high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA) supplementation on chondrogenesis by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured on chitosan sponges and to determine the extent to which MSC matrix production (chondrogenesis) can be influenced by incorporation of high-molecular-weight HA into chitosan scaffolds.

Sample Population—Murine MSCs derived from a multipotent bone marrow stromal precursor.

Procedures—MSCs were seeded on chitosan and chitosan-HA scaffolds in chondrogenic medium with various HA concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy (viability assay), and DNA quantification were used to assess cell attachment, distribution, and viability 48 hours after seeding. Constructs were cultured for 3 weeks prior to evaluation of cell distribution and chondrogenic differentiation via histologic evaluation and quantification of DNA, glycosaminoglycan, and collagen II.

Results—48 hours after MSC seeding, cell viability and DNA content were similar among groups. Three weeks after seeding, HA supplementation of the culture medium improved matrix production in a dose-dependent manner, as indicated by matrix glycosaminoglycan and collagen II concentrations. The scaffold composition, however, had no significant effect on matrix production.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—High-molecular-weight HA supplementation in culture medium had a dose-dependent effect on matrix production and thus chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs cultured on chitosan sponges. The addition of HA in the surrounding fluid during chondrogenesis should improve cartilage production and may be useful for producing engineered cartilage tissues.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of selective hip joint denervation on gait abnormalities and signs of hip joint pain in dogs.

ANIMALS 6 healthy adult hound-type dogs.

PROCEDURES Minimally invasive denervation was performed on the right hip joint of each dog. Two weeks later, sodium urate was injected into the right hip joint to induce synovitis. Dogs were evaluated clinically and by use of instrumented gait analysis before and 2 weeks after minimally invasive denervation and 4, 8, and 24 hours after induction of synovitis. Dogs were euthanized, and necropsy and histologic examination were performed.

RESULTS No kinetic or kinematic gait modifications were detected 2 weeks after minimally invasive denervation. Denervation did not eliminate signs of pain and lameness associated with sodium urate–induced synovitis. Results of histologic examination confirmed that denervation was an effective method for transecting the innervation of the craniolateral and caudolateral aspects of the hip joint capsule.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, minimally invasive denervation did not result in gait modifications in dogs. Denervation did not abolish the signs of pain and lameness associated with generalized induced synovitis of the hip joint. Further studies are required before conclusions can be drawn regarding the clinical usefulness of hip joint denervation for dogs with hip dysplasia.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To develop and validate a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for the detection and quantification of Mycoplasma ovis in goats and investigate the prevalence and risk factors for hemoplasma infection of goats located in Indiana.

ANIMALS 362 adult female goats on 61 farms.

PROCEDURES Primers were designed for amplification of a fragment of the dnaK gene of M ovis by use of a qPCR assay. Blood samples were collected into EDTA-containing tubes for use in total DNA extraction, blood film evaluation, and determination of PCV. Limit of detection, intra-assay variability, interassay variability, and specificity of the assay were determined.

RESULTS Reaction efficiency of the qPCR assay was 94.45% (R2, 0.99; slope, −3.4623), and the assay consistently detected as few as 10 copies of plasmid/reaction. Prevalence of infection in goats on the basis of results for the qPCR assay was 18.0% (95% confidence interval, 14% to 22%), with infected goats ranging from 1 to 14 years old, whereby 61% (95% confidence interval, 47% to 73%) of the farms had at least 1 infected goat. Bacterial load in goats infected with M ovis ranged from 1.05 × 103 target copies/mL of blood to 1.85 × 105 target copies/mL of blood; however, no bacteria were observed on blood films. Production use of a goat was the only risk factor significantly associated with hemoplasma infection.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The qPCR assay was more sensitive for detecting hemoplasma infection than was evaluation of a blood film, and production use of a goat was a risk factor for infection.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To develop a model of hip joint synovitis on the basis of intra-articular injection of a sodium urate suspension in dogs and to characterize associated gait changes.

ANIMALS 6 healthy adult dogs.

PROCEDURES Each dog was sedated, and synovitis was induced by injection of 1 mL of a sodium urate suspension (20 mg/mL) into the right hip joint under ultrasonographic guidance. Observational and instrumented gait analyses to determine temporospatial, kinetic, and kinematic variables were performed prior to and 4, 8, and 24 hours after sedation and synovitis induction.

RESULTS Injection of a sodium urate suspension into the hip joint of healthy dogs resulted in lameness of the ipsilateral pelvic limb as determined by observational and instrumented gait analyses. For all dogs, lameness was clinically detectable within 1.5 to 2 hours after injection, reached its maximum intensity at 4 hours after injection, and had subsided by 24 hours after injection.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that injection of a sodium urate suspension into the hip joint of healthy dogs reliably induced synovitis and signs of pain and lameness in the ipsilateral pelvic limb that lasted 24 hours. This model can be used in conjunction with instrumented gait analysis to provide information on gait changes associated with hip joint disease and might be useful for evaluating the efficacy of analgesics or other interventions for the treatment of hip joint disease in dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine in vitro output temperature differences of 3 IV fluid warmers.

Design—Prospective, randomized study.

Sample—3 IV fluid warmers.

Procedures—Warming capabilities of a distance-dependent blood and fluid warmer marketed for human and veterinary use (product A) and a veterinary-specific distance-dependent fluid warmer (product B) were compared at 0, 4, 8, and 12 cm from the device to the test vein and at flow rates of 20, 60, 100, 140, 180, 220, 260, and 300 mL/h with room temperature (approx 22°C) fluids (phase 1). The superior warming device was compared against a distance-independent IV fluid warmer (product C) with room temperature fluids at the same flow rates (phase 2). The effect of prewarmed fluids (38°C) versus room temperature fluids was evaluated with the superior warming device from phase 2 (phase 3).

Results—In phase 1, product B produced significantly warmer fluids than product A for all flow rates and distances. Both distance-dependent devices produced warmer fluid at 0 cm, compared with 4, 8, and 12 cm. In phase 2, product B produced warmer fluid than product C at 60, 100, 140, and 180 mL/h. In phase 3, there was no significant benefit to use of prewarmed fluids versus room temperature fluids. Output temperatures ≥ 36.4°C were achieved for all rates ≥ 60 mL/h.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Product B had superior warming capabilities. Placing the fluid warmer close to the patient is recommended. Use of prewarmed fluids had no benefit. Lower IV fluid flow rates resulted in lower output fluid temperatures.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To use the small data approach of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) to evaluate the transferability of reference intervals (RIs) for kinetic variables obtained with instrumented gait analysis (IGA) in dogs from an RI-originator laboratory to another laboratory that used the same data acquisition and analytic techniques for IGA in walking dogs.

ANIMALS

27 adult client-owned dogs without evidence of lameness.

PROCEDURES

Dogs were individually walked at their preferred velocity on a pressure-sensing walkway for IGA at the Colorado State University Animal Gait Laboratory (CSU-AGL), and 6 valid trials were analyzed for each dog. The small data approach of the CLSI was then used to evaluate transferability of RIs previously established at the Purdue University Animal Gait Laboratory (PU-AGL). A linear model was used to establish weight-dependent RIs for peak vertical force (PVF).

RESULTS

Results indicated that RIs of dynamic weight distribution (DWD), DWD symmetry index, DWD coefficient of variation, PVF symmetry index, and PVF coefficient of variation were transferable from PU-AGL to CSU-AGL, whereas the weight-dependent RIs for PVF were not. Regression slopes for PVF versus body weight were greater for all limbs in dogs tested at the CSU-AGL, compared with historic results for dogs tested at the PU-AGL.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Use of the small data approach method of the CLSI to validate transference of RIs for IGA kinetic variables in walking dogs was simple and efficient to perform and may help facilitate clinical and research collaborations on gait analysis.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research