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Summary

Forty-six racehorses with a history of poor performance underwent endoscopic evaluation of laryngeal and pharyngeal function while exercising on a high-speed treadmill. This evaluation allowed the definitive diagnosis of intermittent or continual upper respiratory tract obstruction as a cause of poor performance, as well as the documentation of the dynamic functional anatomy of the obstruction. Ten of the horses (22%) were determined to have afunctional abnormality of the upper respiratory tract. These abnormalities included epiglottic entrapment (1 horse), persistent dorsal displacement of the soft palate during exercise (4 horses), and left laryngeal hemiplegia (5 horses). Thirty-two horses were observed to have signs of left laryngeal hemiparesis (asynchronous arytenoid movement) at rest that did not impair full laryngeal abduction during strenuous exercise.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 6-year-old German Shorthaired Pointer was evaluated for possible reconstruction of a mandibular defect resulting from gunshot trauma.

Clinical Findings—A 5-cm defect of the right mandibular body was evident. A segment of the mandibular body was removed 9 weeks earlier because of severe contamination and comminution associated with gunshot trauma. Subsequent right-sided mandibular drift resulted in malocclusion in which the left mandibular canine tooth caused trauma to mucosa of the hard palate medial to the left maxillary canine tooth. The right maxillary canine tooth caused trauma to gingiva lingual to the right mandibular canine tooth.

Treatment and Outcome—The right mandible was stabilized with a 2.0-mm maxillofacial miniplate positioned along the lateral alveolar margin and a 2.4-mm locking mandibular reconstruction plate placed along the ventrolateral mandible. An absorbable compressionresistant matrix containing collagen, hydroxyapatite, and tricalcium phosphate was soaked in recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2; 7.2 mL of a 0.5 mg/mL solution for a dose of 3.6 mg) and placed in the defect. By 4 weeks after surgery, an exuberant callus was evident at the site of the defect. By 7 months after surgery, the callus had remodeled, resulting in normal appearance, normal occlusion, and excellent function of the jaw.

Clinical Relevance—Mandibular defects resulting from gunshot trauma can be treated by removal of contaminated tissue and comminuted bone fragments, followed by staged reconstruction. The combination of rhBMP-2 and compression-resistant matrix was effective in a staged mandibular reconstruction in a dog with a severe traumatic mandibular defect.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine anatomic patterns and clinical importance of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake in bones of horses used for show jumping, hunting, and eventing.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

141 horses evaluated because of lameness.

Procedure

Medical records were reviewed, and information on results of physical examination, radiography, and scintigraphy were obtained. Scintigrams were evaluated to identify areas of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake.

Results

834 areas of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake were identified. Scintigraphy of the vertebral column was performed in 78 horses, and 50 had areas of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake involving the spinous processes. Scintigraphy of the proximal phalanx of the forelimb was performed in 88 horses. Similarly, scintigraphy of the proximal phalanx of the hind limb was performed in 99 horses, and scintigrams of 374 proximal phalanges were available for review. One hundred fifty-five scintigrams had areas of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake. Scintigraphy of the tarsal joint was performed in 99 horses, and scintigrams of 198 joints were available for review. Eighty-five had areas of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake. Overall, 214 of 834 areas of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake were definitively associated with lameness.

Clinical Implications

Results of this study suggest that jumping creates unique stresses on the bones of horses. The distinctive patterns of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake identified in this study suggest that horses used for jumping may have a predilection to develop orthopedic disease at specific sites distinct from those in racehorses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:1460-1467)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association