Objective—To establish the incidence of and risk factors for seizures following myelography performed with iohexol in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records were searched for dogs that underwent myelography between April 2002 and December 2004. Data extracted included body weight, breed, age, sex, volume and dose of iohexol, site of injections, location of lesion, duration of anesthesia, surgical procedures immediately after myelography, use of acepromazine, and presence or absence of seizures.
Results—15 (3%) dogs had postmyelographic seizures. Risk factors significantly associated with seizures were size of dogs (large dogs were 35.35 times as likely to have seizures as were small dogs), location of contrast medium injection (dogs in which iohexol was injected into the cerebellomedullary cistern were 7.4 times as likely to have seizures as were dogs in which iohexol was injected into the lumbar cistern), location of lesion (dogs with lesions at the level of the cervical portion of the vertebral column were 4.65 times as likely to develop seizures as were dogs with lesions in other regions), and total volume of iohexol. Mean ± SD total volume of iohexol was 11.73 ± 5.52 mL (median, 10.5 mL [range, 3.0 to 21.0 mL]) for dogs that had seizures and 4.57 ± 4.13 mL (median, 3.5 mL [range, 0.75 to 45.0 mL]) for those that did not.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Large-breed dogs with cervical lesions and large volumes of iohexol injected into the cerebellomedullary cistern had the highest risk of seizures. The use of contrast medium volumes > 8 mL in large dogs should be avoided, with preference given to injections into the lumbar cistern.
Objective—To compare morphologic and morphometric features of the cervical vertebral column and spinal cord of Doberman Pinschers with and without clinical signs of cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM; wobbler syndrome) detected via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Animals—16 clinically normal and 16 CSM-affected Doberman Pinschers.
Procedures—For each dog, MRI of the cervical vertebral column (in neutral and traction positions) was performed. Morphologically, MRI abnormalities were classified according to a spinal cord compression scale. Foraminal stenosis and intervertebral disk degeneration and protrusion were also recorded. Morphometric measurements of the vertebral canal and spinal cord were obtained in sagittal and transverse MRI planes.
Results—4 of 16 clinically normal and 15 of 16 CSM-affected dogs had spinal cord compression. Twelve clinically normal and all CSM-affected dogs had disk degeneration. Foraminal stenosis was detected in 11 clinically normal and 14 CSM-affected dogs. Vertebral canal and spinal cord areas were consistently smaller in CSM-affected dogs, compared with clinically normal dogs. In neutral and traction positions, the intervertebral disks of CSM-affected dogs were wider than those of clinically normal dogs but the amount of disk distraction was similar between groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The incidence of intervertebral disk degeneration and foraminal stenosis in clinically normal Doberman Pinschers was high; cervical spinal cord compression may be present without concurrent clinical signs. A combination of static factors (ie, a relatively stenotic vertebral canal and wider intervertebral disks) distinguished CSM-affected dogs from clinically normal dogs and appears to be a key feature in the pathogenesis of CSM.
Objective—To describe and compare the distribution
of technetium Tc 99m (99mTc) pertechnate following
intraosseous or IV injection (with or without use of a
tourniquet) in the distal portion of the forelimb in
Procedure—Each horse received 4 forelimb treatments
in random sequence: intraosseous infusion
with tourniquet application (IOT), intraosseous infusion
without tourniquet application, IV infusion with
tourniquet application (IVT), and IV infusion without
tourniquet application. Dynamic nuclear scintigraphic
imaging of the third metacarpal bone, proximal and
middle phalanges, and distal phalanx was performed
from the start of each treatment until 1 hour after infusion
was completed. Radionuclide activity was compared
within and between treatment groups.
Results—Tourniquet application was necessary to
maintain high levels of radionuclide activity in the distal
portion of the forelimb after intraosseous or IV
infusion with 99mTc pertechnate; IVT and IOT treatments
resulted in similar radionuclide activity in the
proximal and middle phalanges and distal phalanx. Of
the 4 treatments, there was significantly higher
radionuclide activity in the distal aspect of the third
metacarpal bone after the IOT treatment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—By use of a
tourniquet, radionuclide administration via the
intraosseous or IV routes resulted in effective perfusion
of the distal portion of the forelimb and similar
distribution of the agent in the phalanges of horses.
Further studies are required to ascertain whether
these findings apply to delivery of therapeutic agents
in infected tissues via IOT or IVT. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To assess the effects of alterations in PaCO2 and PaO2 on blood oxygenation level–dependent (BOLD) signal intensity determined by use of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in brains of isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.
Animals—6 healthy dogs.
Procedures—In each dog, anesthesia was induced with propofol (6 to 8 mg/kg, IV) and maintained with isoflurane (1.7%) and atracurium (0.2 mg/kg, IV, q 30 min). During 1 magnetic resonance imaging session in each dog, targeted values of PaCO2 (20, 40, or 80 mm Hg) and PaO2 (100 or 500 mm Hg) were combined to establish 6 experimental conditions, including a control condition (PaCO2, 40 mm Hg; PaO2, 100 mm Hg). Dogs were randomly assigned to different sequences of conditions. Each condition was established for a period of ≥ 5 minutes before susceptibility-weighted imaging was performed. Signal intensity was measured in 6 regions of interest in the brain, and data were analyzed by use of an ANCOVA and post hoc Tukey-Kramer adjustments.
Results—Compared with control condition findings, BOLD signal intensity did not differ significantly in any region of interest. However, signal intensities in the thalamus and diencephalic gray matter decreased significantly during both hypocapnic conditions, compared with all other conditions except for the control condition.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In isoflurane-anesthetized dogs, certain regions of gray matter appeared to have greater cerebrovascular responses to changes in PaCO2 and PaO2 than did others. Both PaO2 and PaCO2 should be controlled during magnetic resonance imaging procedures that involve BOLD signaling and taken into account when interpreting findings.
Objective—To evaluate whether changes in gastric myoelectrical activity in healthy, awake dogs can be detected via multichannel electrogastrography (EGG).
Animals—6 healthy hound-breed dogs.
Procedures—For each dog, 8-channel EGG was performed after food had been withheld for 12 hours and at 30 minutes after subsequent feeding; 60 minutes after feeding, atropine (0.04 mg/kg) was administered IM to induce ileus, and 30 minutes later, EGG was again performed. Mean cycles per minute (cpm) values of the dominant frequency (a measure of the rhythmicity of gastric electrical activity) and mean power ratios (ie, power measured after treatment divided by the power measured when food was withheld) were calculated. Motility of the gastric antrum was assessed via B-mode ultrasonography during the same phases; contractions determined ultrasonographically were correlated with EGG power for each channel in each phase.
Results—The criterion for stability (SD of the dominant frequency < 15% of the cpm value in at least 3 of the 8 EGG channels) was met in 4 of the 6 dogs (only in long-distance channels). The mean power ratios were significantly higher in the postprandial phase than in the ileus phase. Compared with the postprandial phase, significantly fewer contractions per minute were evident ultrasonographically in the ileus and food-withholding phases. There was a significant and good correlation between EGG power and ultrasonographic findings in all 8 channels.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Electrogastrography may be useful in assessing gastric myoelectrical activities in awake dogs with naturally occurring gastrointestinal disease, including gastric dilatation-volvulus.
Objective—To compare quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution methods for measurement of total body water (TBW), lean body mass (LBM), and fat mass (FM) in healthy cats and to assess QMR precision and accuracy.
Animals—Domestic shorthair cats (58 and 32 cats for trials 1 and 2, respectively).
Procedures—QMR scans of awake cats performed with 2 units were followed by administration of D2O tracer (100 mg/kg, PO). Cats then were anesthetized, which was followed by QMR and DXA scans. Jugular blood samples were collected before and 120 minutes after D2O administration.
Results—QMR precision was similar between units (coefficient of variation < 2.9% for all measures). Fat mass, LBM, and TBW were similar for awake or sedated cats and differed by 4.0%, 3.4%, and 3.9%, respectively, depending on the unit. The QMR minimally underestimated TBW (1.4%) and LBM (4.4%) but significantly underestimated FM (29%), whereas DXA significantly underestimated LBM (9.2%) and quantitatively underestimated FM (9.3%). A significant relationship with D2O measurement was detected for all QMR (r2 > 0.84) and DXA (r2 > 0.84) measurements.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—QMR was useful for determining body composition in cats; precision was improved over DXA. Quantitative magnetic resonance can be used to safely and rapidly acquire data without the need for anesthesia, facilitating frequent monitoring of weight changes in geriatric, extremely young, or ill pets. Compared with the D2O dilution method, QMR correction equations provided accurate data over a range of body compositions.
Objective—To compare quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and deuterium oxide (D2O) methods for measurement of total body water (TBW), lean body mass (LBM), and fat mass (FM) in healthy dogs and to assess QMR accuracy.
Animals—58 Beagles (9 months to 11.5 years old).
Procedures—QMR scans were performed on awake dogs. A D2O tracer was administered (100 mg/kg, PO) immediately before dogs were sedated, which was followed by a second QMR or DXA scan. Jugular blood samples were collected before and 120 minutes after D2O administration.
Results—TBW, LBM, and FM determined via QMR were not significantly different between awake or sedated dogs, and means differed by only 2.0%, 2.2%, and 4.3%, respectively. Compared with results for D2O dilution, QMR significantly underestimated TBW (10.2%), LBM (13.4%), and FM (15.4%). Similarly, DXA underestimated LBM (7.3%) and FM (8.4%). A significant relationship was detected between FM measured via D2O dilution and QMR (r2 > 0.89) or DXA (r2 > 0.88). Even though means of TBW and LBM differed significantly between D2O dilution and QMR or DXA, values were highly related (r2 > 0.92).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—QMR was useful for determining body composition in dogs and can be used to safely and rapidly acquire accurate data without the need for sedation or anesthesia. These benefits can facilitate frequent scans, particularly in geriatric, extremely young, or ill pets. Compared with the D2O dilution method, QMR correction equations provided accurate assessment over a range of body compositions.
Objective—To use magnetic resonance (MR) imaging
to describe and compare the anatomic distribution of
a lipid contrast medium injected via the retrobulbar
and Peterson nerve block techniques in heads of
Sample—5 grossly normal heads obtained from cattle
Procedure—Standardized techniques for the modified
retrobulbar and Peterson nerve blocks were
established. Each cadaver had 1 treatment performed
on a randomly selected side of the head; the second
treatment was performed on the alternate side of the
head. Injections were performed with canola oil,
which is an MR-positive contrast medium. Images of
heads in the transverse and dorsal planes were
obtained with a 3.0 Tesla short-bore MR system.
Results—The retrobulbar technique was characterized
by widespread distribution of the contrast medium
around the periorbital structures; further distribution
of the medium was detected along the optic
nerve and in the ethmoid turbinates and nasopharynx.
After the Peterson nerve block technique, contrast
medium was repeatedly located in the pterygopalatine
fossa, but distribution to surrounding structures
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate
that the retrobulbar injection technique results in
a greater distribution of contrast medium to the target
nerves and surrounding structures, compared with
that achieved via the Peterson nerve block technique.
This may explain the previously reported clinical
impression that the retrobulbar block is more reliable
than the Peterson nerve block but is associated with
a greater risk of complications. (J Am Vet Med Assoc