Objective—To compare cardiac output (CO) measured by lithium arterial pressure waveform analysis (PULSECO) and CO measured by transpulmonary pulse contour analysis (PICCO) in anesthetized foals, with CO measured by use of lithium dilution (LIDCO) considered the criterion-referenced standard.
Sample Population—6 neonatal (1- to 4-day-old) foals that weighed 38 to 45 kg.
Procedures—Foals were anesthetized and instrumented to measure direct blood pressure, heart rate, arterial blood gases, and CO. The CO was measured by use of PULSECO, PICCO, and LIDCO techniques. Measurements were converted to specific CO (sCO) values for statistical analysis. Measurements were obtained during low, intermediate, and high CO states.
Results—sCO ranged from 75.5 to 310 mL/kg/min. Mean ± SD PICCO bias varied significantly among CO states and was −51.9 ± 23.1 mL/kg/min, 20.0 ± 19.5 mL/kg/min, and 87.2 ± 19.5 mL/kg/min at low, intermediate, and high CO states, respectively. Mean PULSECO bias (11.0 ± 37.5 mL/kg/min) was significantly lower than that of PICCO and did not vary among CO states. Concordance correlation coefficient between LIDCO and PULSECO was significantly greater than that between LIDCO and PICCO. The proportion of observations with a relative bias < ± 30% was significantly lower with the PULSECO method than with the PICCO method.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Values for the PULSECO method were more reproducible and agreed better with values for the LIDCO method than did values for the PICCO method and were able to more accurately monitor changes in CO in anesthetized newborn foals.
Objective—To describe a percutaneously controlled
static hydraulic urethral sphincter (SHUS) and evaluate
urodynamic effects of the SHUS in canine cadavers.
Sample Population—Cadavers of 6 adult female
Procedure—Cadavers were obtained immediately
after dogs were euthanatized. Baseline maximal urethral
closure pressure (MUCP) and cystourethral leak
point pressure (CLPP) were measured by use of a
urethral pressure profilometer. An SHUS system was
constructed by use of a silicone vascular occluder and
subcutaneous infusion port. The SHUS system was
then placed around the pelvic urethra in each cadaver.
Measurements of MUCP and CLPP were repeated
after varying occlusion of the SHUS (0%, 25%, and
50% occlusion). Baseline MUCP and CLPP values
were compared with values obtained at 0%, 25%,
and 50% occlusion of the SHUS by use of repeatedmeasures
Results—Mean ± SD MUCP for canine cadavers was
7 ± 1.3 cm H2O at baseline, which increased to 127 ±
53 cm H2O after 50% occlusion of the SHUS. Mean
CLPP was 11 ± 8.6 cm H2O at baseline, which
increased to 73 ± 38 cm H2O after 50% occlusion of
the SHUS. Mean MUCP and CLPP were significantly
associated with the amount of occlusion.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The SHUS
had positive effects on MUCP and CLPP in canine
cadavers. Therefore, additional evaluation of the
SHUS in live dogs is warranted. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;