Objective—To establish optimal conditions for long-term culture of the erythrocytic stage of Theileria uilenbergi.
Sample Population—Red blood cells from 3 splenectomized sheep experimentally infected with a blood stabilate of T uilenbergi.
Procedures—Cultures of T uilenbergi were initiated by use of blood from experimentally infected sheep collected when parasites were detected in Giemsa-stained thin blood smears. Different culture conditions were tested to optimize in vitro growth of the organisms. Subcultures were performed at a ratio of 1:2, 1:4, and 1:8 when the percentage of parasitized erythrocytes (PPE) was at least 1% or when the initial PPE was doubled.
Results—The optimal culture medium was HL-1 medium (a complete chemically defined medium) supplemented with 20% sheep serum and 0.75% chemically defined lipids. Optimal culture conditions included incubation in a humidified 2% O2, 5% CO2, and 93% N2 atmosphere at 37°C. Cultures of the merozoite stage of the parasite were continuously propagated in vitro for > 1 year. The PPE reached values of up to 3%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Optimization of culture conditions to reach a high PPE seems worthwhile. The continuous propagation of T uilenbergi in culture allows the production of parasite material without infecting animals and provides a continuous laboratory source of parasites for further studies.
Objective—To determine whether rosiglitazone, an agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, could alleviate intestinal damage induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in weaned pigs.
Procedures—Pigs were allocated to 3 treatments (6 pigs/treatment). Control pigs were injected IP with dimethyl sulfoxide and then injected 30 minutes later with sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, LPS-treated pigs were injected IP with dimethyl sulfoxide and then injected 30 minutes later with LPS (100 μg/kg, IP), and rosiglitazone plus LPS-treated pigs were injected with rosiglitazone (3 mg/kg, IP) and then injected 30 minutes later with LPS (100 μg/kg, IP). Pigs were euthanized 3 hours after challenge exposure, and samples of the small intestines were collected for histologic, biochemical, and immunohistochemical examination.
Results—Rosiglitazone alleviated LPS-induced intestinal damage, which was manifested as a lower crypt depth in the duodenum and a higher villus height-to-crypt depth ratio in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Rosiglitazone also mitigated inhibition of crypt cell proliferation in the jejunum and ileum induced by LPS injection. Pretreatment with rosiglitazone significantly increased the number of cells that stained for PPARγ and significantly decreased the number of cells that stained for inducible nitric oxide synthase.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Rosiglitazone alleviated intestinal damage induced by LPS injection in weaned pigs. The protective effects of rosiglitazone on the intestines may be associated with inhibition of intestinal proinflammatory mediators, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1331–1338)