Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 62 items for

  • Author or Editor: Hollis N. Erb x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To determine total glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) concentrations in liver tissues from dogs and cats with spontaneous liver disease.

Sample Population—Liver biopsy specimens from 63 dogs and 20 cats with liver disease and 12 healthy dogs and 15 healthy cats.

Procedure—GSH was measured by use of an enzymatic method; GSSG was measured after 2-vinylpyridine extraction of reduced GSH. Concentrations were expressed by use of wet liver weight and concentration of tissue protein and DNA.

Results—Disorders included necroinflammatory liver diseases (24 dogs, 10 cats), extrahepatic bile duct obstruction (8 dogs, 3 cats), vacuolar hepatopathy (16 dogs), hepatic lipidosis (4 cats), portosystemic vascular anomalies (15 dogs), and hepatic lymphosarcoma (3 cats). Significantly higher liver GSH and protein concentrations and a lower tissue DNA concentration and ratio of reduced GSH-to-GSSG were found in healthy cats, compared with healthy dogs. Of 63 dogs and 20 cats with liver disease, 22 and 14 had low liver concentrations of GSH (µmol) per gram of tissue; 10 and 10 had low liver concentrations of GSH (nmol) per milligram of tissue protein; and 26 and 18 had low liver concentrations of GSH (nmol) per microgram of tissue DNA, respectively. Low liver tissue concentrations of GSH were found in cats with necroinflammatory liver disease and hepatic lipidosis. Low liver concentrations of GSH per microgram of tissue DNA were found in dogs with necroinflammatory liver disease and cats with necroinflammatory liver disease, extrahepatic bile duct occlusion, and hepatic lipidosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Low GSH values are common in necroinflammatory liver disorders, extrahepatic bile duct occlusion, and feline hepatic lipidosis. Cats may have higher risk than dogs for low liver GSH concentrations. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1187–1197)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine morbidity and fatalities in cats with hepatic lipidosis that received propofol to facilitate placement of a feeding tube.

Study Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—44 cats with presumed primary hepatic lipidosis anesthetized for placement of a feeding tube.

Procedures—Medical records from January 1995 through December 2004 were reviewed to identify cats that matched the inclusion criteria (histologic confirmation of hepatic lipidosis, anesthetized for placement of feeding tube, complete intensive care unit [ICU] records, and recorded outcome). Data extracted included age, body weight, sex, anesthetic drugs, drug dosages, type of feeding tube, duration of anesthesia, number of hours in ICU, administration of blood products, and survival until discharge from ICU.

Results—44 cats (21 females and 23 males) were included in the analysis. Age range was 3 to 15 years (median, 8 years), and body weight ranged from 1.8 to 9.0 kg (4.0 to 19.8 lb), with a median of 4.8 kg (10.6 lb). Twenty-seven cats were administered propofol. There was no significant association between the use of propofol or the dosage of propofol and any risk factor, need for blood products, number of hours in the ICU, or survival. There was no significant difference between cats that received propofol and cats that did not receive propofol with regard to interval until discharge from the ICU.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The use of propofol did not increase morbidity or fatalities in cats with primary hepatic lipidosis. Thus, propofol can be used in these cats for placement of a feeding tube.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop an assay to measure canine von Willebrand factor (vWF):collagen-binding activity (CBA) to screen for type 2 von Willebrand disease (vWD) in dogs.

Sample Population—293 plasma samples submitted for analysis of canine vWF antigen (vWF:Ag) and 12 control plasma samples from dogs with inherited type 2 or 3 vWD.

Procedure—Bovine collagens were evaluated for suitability as binding substrate for vWF. Assay sensitivity to depletion, proteolytic degradation, or a genetic deficiency of high-molecular-weight vWF were determined. Amounts of vWF:Ag and vWF:CBA were measured. The ratio of vWF:Ag to vWF:CBA was used to discriminate between type 1 and type 2 vWD.

Results—An assay for canine vWF activity was developed by use of mixed collagen (types I and III). When vWF:Ag was used to subtype vWD, 48% of the dogs were classified as clinically normal, 9% as indeterminate, and 43% as type 1 vWD. Inclusion of vWF activity resulted in reclassification of 5% of those identified as type 1 to type 2 vWD. However, vWF:CBA of the reclassified dogs was not persistently abnormal, a finding compatible with acquired type 2 vWD. Some Doberman Pinschers had lower antigen-to-activity ratios than other breeds with type 1 vWD, suggesting that Doberman Pinschers have more functional circulating vWF.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of canine vWF activity should be included among the vWF-specific assays used to confirm type 2 vWD. The prevalence of inherited forms of type 2 vWD in screened dogs is lower than acquired forms that can result secondary to underlying disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of citrate concentration (3.2 vs 3.8%) on coagulation tests in dogs.

Design—Original study.

Animals—30 clinically healthy dogs and 12 dogs with hereditary hemostatic disorders.

Procedure—Blood was collected from all dogs directly into collection tubes containing 3.2 or 3.8% buffered citrate. Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and fibrinogen concentration were measured by use of 3 clot-detection assay systems (2 mechanical and 1 photo-optic). Factor VIII and factor IX coagulant activities (FVIII:C and FIX:C, respectively) were determined by use of a manual tilt-tube method and a mechanical clot-detection device.

Results—Significant differences were not detected in median PT, fibrinogen concentration, FVIII:C, or FIX:C between 3.2 and 3.8% citrate for any assay system. A significant prolongation in aPTT for 3.2% citrate, compared with 3.8% citrate, was found in 1 mechanical system.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Citrate concentration does not significantly affect results of most coagulation assays, regardless of assay system. The aPTT was mildly influenced by the citrate concentration, although this was animal-, instrument-, and reagent-dependent. The choice of 3.2 or 3.8% citrate as an anticoagulant for coagulation tests has minimal influence on assay results in healthy dogs or dogs with hereditary hemostatic disorders. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1672–1677)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To document any discordance between the set temperature and independently measured temperature of neonatal incubators in order to determine the potential of neonatal incubators to cause hypothermia or hyperthermia in neonatal animals.

SAMPLE

5 different veterinary neonatal incubators from 2 separate manufacturers.

METHODS

Internal temperatures of 5 incubators from 2 manufacturers were monitored with both internal and external monitoring devices to determine how much incubator temperatures might vary from what is reported on the incubator thermostat. The study was conducted on May 25, 2022.

RESULTS

Increases in temperature as measured by thermocouple and infrared sensors of > 2 °C were detected in 3 of the 5 (60%; 95% CI, 17% to 93%) tested incubators. Temperatures exceeded 41 °C at times, despite the incubator thermostat being set to 35 °C.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Neonatal puppies have a decreased capacity to thermoregulate and are susceptible to both hypothermia and hyperthermia if environmental temperatures are not kept within a proper range. Core temperatures below 35.0 °C lead to bradycardia, dyspnea, loss of suckle reflex, hypoglycemia, gastrointestinal ileus, and multiple organ failure; temperatures above 41.1 °C lead to pulmonary edema, petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhage in multiple organs, and death.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of carprofen on hemostatic variables in clinically normal dogs.

Animals—12 clinically normal Labrador Retrievers.

Procedure—10 dogs (6 females, 4 males) received carprofen (2.2 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 12 h) for 5 days. Two dogs (untreated control group; 1 female, 1 male) did not receive carprofen. Hemostatic variables (platelet count, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, fibrinogen, platelet aggregation, and bleeding time) were assessed for all dogs prior to treatment, on day 5 of treatment, and 2 and 7 days after discontinuation of the drug (days 7 and 12). Serum biochemical variables and Hct were assessed prior to treatment and on days 5 and 12.

Results—In dogs receiving carprofen, platelet aggregation was significantly decreased, and onset of aggregation was significantly delayed on days 5, 7, and 12, compared with pretreatment values. Activated partial thromboplastin time was significantly increased on days 5, 7, and 12 over pretreatment values in treated dogs, but values remained within reference ranges. Significant differences were not detected in buccal mucosal bleeding time, other serum biochemical and hemostatic variables, or Hct, compared with pretreatment values and the internal control group.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Administration of carprofen for 5 days causes minor but not clinically important alterations in hemostatic and serum biochemical variables in clinically normal Labrador Retrievers. Carprofen is commonly used to treat osteoarthritis and chronic pain in dogs, but prior to this study, its effect on platelet aggregation and hemostatic variables was unknown. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1642–1646)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To define the relationship between clinical expression of a type-1 von Willebrand disease phenotype and genotype at 2 von Willebrand factor marker loci in Doberman Pinschers.

Animals—102 client-owned Doberman Pinschers.

Procedures—Dogs were recruited on the basis of plasma von Willebrand factor concentration, clinical history, and pedigree. Blood samples and response to a history questionnaire were obtained for each dog. Plasma von Willebrand factor concentration was measured by use of an ELISA, and genotyping was performed via polymerase chain reaction for 1 intragenic and 1 extragenic von Willebrand factor marker. Amplification product size was determined by use of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (intragenic marker) or automated sequence analysis (extragenic marker). Western blots were prepared from a subset of dogs with low plasma von Willebrand factor concentration to evaluate multimer distribution.

Results—Strong associations were detected between plasma von Willebrand factor concentration and von Willebrand factor marker genotype. Twentyfive dogs had substantial reduction in plasma von Willebrand factor concentration and multiple hemorrhagic events. All were homozygous for a 157-basepair intragenic marker allele and homozygous or compound heterozygous for 1 of 4 extragenic marker alleles. These marker genotypes were exclusively detected in dogs with low plasma von Willebrand factor concentration, although some dogs with these genotypes did not have abnormal bleeding.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Type-1 von Willebrand disease in Doberman Pinschers is associated with the von Willebrand factor gene locus; however, the expression pattern in this breed appears more complex than that of a simple recessive trait. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:364–369)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine sensitivity and specificity of assays of D-dimer concentrations in dogs with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and healthy dogs and to compare these results with those of serum and plasma fibrin-fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) assays.

Animals—20 dogs with DIC and 30 healthy dogs.

Procedure—Semi-quantitative and quantitative D-dimer concentrations were determined by use of latex-agglutination and immunoturbidometry, respectively. Fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products were measured by use of latex-agglutination. A reference range for the immunoturbidometric D-dimer concentration assay was established; sensitivity and specificity of the assay were determined at 2 cutoff concentrations (0.30 µg/ml and 0.39 µg/ml).

Results—Reference range for the immunoturbidometric D-dimer concentration assay was 0.08 to 0.39 µg/ml; median concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with DIC than in healthy dogs. Latexagglutination D-dimer and serum and plasma FDP assays had similar sensitivity (85 to 100%) and specificity (90 to 100%); the immunoturbidometric assay had lower specificity (77%) at the 0.30 µg/ml cutoff and lower sensitivity (65%) at the 0.39 µg/ml cutoff. Sensitivity or specificity of the latex-agglutination D-dimer assay was not significantly improved when interpreted in series or parallel with FDP assays.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Measurement of D-dimer concentrations by latex-agglutination appears to be a sensitive and specific ancillary test for DIC in dogs. Specificity of D-dimer concentrations in dogs with systemic disease other than DIC has not been determined, therefore FDP and D-dimer assays should be performed concurrently as supportive tests for the diagnosis of DIC in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:393–398)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To describe onset and duration of neuromuscular blockade induced by mivacurium chloride and its associated hemodynamic effects at 3 dosages in healthy dogs.

Animals

7 Labrador Retrievers.

Procedure

Anesthesia was induced with thiopental and maintained with halothane in oxygen, and dogs were mechanically ventilated to end-tidal PCO2 between 35 and 40 mm Hg. Core temperature, end-tidal PCO2 , and halothane concentration were kept constant throughout the experiment. Neuromuscular function was assessed by evaluation of the train-of-four response to a supramaximal electrical stimulus of 2 Hz applied to the ulnar nerve every 10 seconds. Blood for determination of plasma cholinesterase activity was obtained prior to administration of mivacurium, a bolus of which was administered IV, using a randomized Latin-square design for dosages of 0.01, 0.02, and 0.05 mg/kg of body weight.

Results

All dogs had typical plasma cholinesterase activity. After administration of mivacurium, differences were not evident between groups in heart rate, systolic, mean, or diastolic blood pressure, change at any time in heart rate, systolic, mean, or diastolic blood pressure, or pH. Interval from onset to 100% neuromuscular blockade was 3.92 ± 1.70, 2.42 ± 0.53, and 1.63 ± 0.25 minutes at dosages of 0.01, 0.02, and 0.05 mg/kg, respectively. Duration of measurable neuromuscular blockade was 33.72 ± 12.73, 65.38 ± 12.82, and 151.0 ± 38.50 minutes, respectively. Time of onset and duration of effect differed significantly among dosages.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Mivacurium provides good hemodynamic stability at the dosages tested. In dogs, this drug has a rapid onset and long duration of effect. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1047-1050)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To compare, for blood samples from dogs and horses, blood electrolyte concentrations, blood gas partial pressures, and Hct obtained using a handheld analyzer with those obtained using a standard chemistry analyzer and to compare results obtained with the handheld analyzer using warm versus cold test cartridges.

Design

Case series with analysis of split samples.

Sample Population

Blood samples from 22 dogs and 17 horses.

Procedure

Sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, bicarbonate, and total CO2 concentrations, pH, Po2, Pco2, base excess, and Hct were determined by use of a handheld analyzer and test cartridges that had been allowed to warm to ambient temperature or had been recently removed from a refrigerator. Results were compared with those from a standard chemistry analyzer by use of linear regression.

Results

For canine samples, values obtained with the handheld analyzer and warm cartridges were highly correlated (r 2 ≥ 0.83) with values obtained with the standard chemistry analyzer, except for sodium concentration (r 2 = 0.6). For equine samples, values obtained with the handheld analyzer and warm cartridges were highly correlated (r 2 ≥ 0.79) with values obtained with the standard chemistry analyzer, except for Hct (r 2 = 0.38). For all samples, results obtained with cold and warm cartridges were moderately correlated (r 2 ≥ 0.69).

Clinical Implications

Results obtained with the handheld analyzer were similar to those obtained from the standard chemistry analyzer, with the exception of sodium concentration for canine samples and Hct for equine samples. Results were not substantially affected by use of cold, rather than warm, test cartridges. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:526-530)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association