Case Description—A 6-month-old female domestic shorthair cat was admitted for evaluation of intermittent clinical signs of hematuria and inappropriate urination for the past 2 months.
Clinical Findings—Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed a multilayered mass in the urinary bladder apex consistent with full-thickness invagination of the bladder wall.
Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory surgery was performed, and partial inversion of the urinary bladder was confirmed. The invaginated bladder apex was manually reduced, and partial cystectomy was performed to remove the invaginated section of bladder wall. Histologic findings were consistent with vascular congestion and edema secondary to partial invagination. Bacterial culture of a section of the bladder mucosa demonstrated concurrent bacterial urinary tract infection. Clinical signs resolved following surgical resection of the bladder apex and antimicrobial treatment for the concurrent urinary tract infection.
Clinical Relevance—Partial invagination of the urinary bladder should be considered in the differential diagnosis for cats with clinical signs of hematuria, stranguria, and inappropriate urination. A diagnosis may be made on the basis of detection of invaginated tissue in the bladder apex during abdominal ultrasonography.
OBJECTIVE To compare ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) with standard ocular ultrasonography for detection of canine uveal cysts and to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver agreement for detection of uveal cysts with UBM.
SAMPLE 202 enucleated eyes from 101 dogs.
PROCEDURES 2 examiners examined 202 eyes by means of UBM (50 MHz) to identify uveal cysts. A board-certified radiologist then examined 98 of the 202 eyes by means of standard ocular ultrasonography (7- to 12-MHz linear transducer). Subsequently, 1 examiner dissected all 202 eyes under magnification from an operating microscope to definitively identify uveal cysts. Each examiner was masked to other examiners’ findings. Sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver agreement were calculated for detection of cysts by UBM.
RESULTS Cysts were detected by use of UBM in 55 of 202 (27%) eyes by one examiner and 29 of 202 (14%) eyes by the other. No cysts were detected in the 98 eyes examined with standard ocular ultrasonography. Dissection results revealed that cysts were present in 64 of 202 (32%) eyes, including 29 of 98 (30%) eyes examined by standard ocular ultrasonography. Mean sensitivity of UBM for cyst detection was 47%; mean specificity was 92%. Uveal cysts not identified with UBM were often small (mean diameter, 490 üm). Interobserver agreement was high (κP = 0.81).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE UBM was more effective than standard ocular ultrasonography for detection of uveal cysts in enucleated eyes. Small-diameter cysts were difficult to visualize even with UBM.
Case Description—An 8-year-old 12.2-kg (26.9-lb) spayed female American Cocker Spaniel was referred for evaluation of abdominal discomfort and a suspected intra-abdominal lipoma with possible invasion into the thorax.
Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed a tense abdomen, and the margins of a large abdominal mass could be appreciated. Abdominal imaging revealed a mass of fat opacity in the abdominal and thoracic cavities. Computed tomography with precontrast and postcontrast peritoneograms was used to determine whether the masses connected via a diaphragmatic defect.
Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory laparotomy revealed a retroperitoneal lipomatous mass that had focally invaded the hypaxial musculature and had extended across the dorsolateral aspect of the diaphragm via the lumbocostal trigone into the intrathoracic extrapleural space. Surgical resection required transdiaphragmatic thoracotomy. Histologic examination of excised tissue confirmed the preoperative diagnosis of a lipoma. The dog recovered from surgery with no complications and had no disease recurrence for at least 32 months after surgical resection.
Clinical Relevance—The defect of the lumbocostal trigone is also called the foramen of Bochdalek in humans, and it is recognized as a common location for congenital diaphragmatic hernia. A lumbocostal trigone hernia may be considered as a differential diagnosis for bicavitary masses in dogs, particularly in the absence of a history of trauma.
OBJECTIVE To develop a model of hip joint synovitis on the basis of intra-articular injection of a sodium urate suspension in dogs and to characterize associated gait changes.
ANIMALS 6 healthy adult dogs.
PROCEDURES Each dog was sedated, and synovitis was induced by injection of 1 mL of a sodium urate suspension (20 mg/mL) into the right hip joint under ultrasonographic guidance. Observational and instrumented gait analyses to determine temporospatial, kinetic, and kinematic variables were performed prior to and 4, 8, and 24 hours after sedation and synovitis induction.
RESULTS Injection of a sodium urate suspension into the hip joint of healthy dogs resulted in lameness of the ipsilateral pelvic limb as determined by observational and instrumented gait analyses. For all dogs, lameness was clinically detectable within 1.5 to 2 hours after injection, reached its maximum intensity at 4 hours after injection, and had subsided by 24 hours after injection.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that injection of a sodium urate suspension into the hip joint of healthy dogs reliably induced synovitis and signs of pain and lameness in the ipsilateral pelvic limb that lasted 24 hours. This model can be used in conjunction with instrumented gait analysis to provide information on gait changes associated with hip joint disease and might be useful for evaluating the efficacy of analgesics or other interventions for the treatment of hip joint disease in dogs.