A 3-year-old Suffolk ram was evaluated for decreased appetite, chronic weight loss, and severe wool loss on the dorsal and lateral aspects of the thorax and abdomen for an unknown duration. The sheep also had a history of an unknown duration of intermittent fever ranging from 40° to 41.5°C (104° to 106.7°F). The sheep's condition had not improved despite treatment with numerous antimicrobials.
On physical examination, the sheep was lethargic and had a body condition score of 1 (scale of 1 to 5). Thoracic auscultation revealed increased lung sounds in the right cranial and ventral lung fields. The wool
A 9-year-old spayed female Miniature Schnauzer was evaluated because of vomiting and lethargy of 1 week's duration. Abnormal physical examination findings included severe bilateral organomegaly on abdominal palpation suspected to be due to bilateral kidney enlargement and a grade 4/6 systolic heart murmur. Results of a CBC were unremarkable, but serum biochemical analysis revealed azotemia and hyperphosphatemia (SUN, 114 mg/dL [reference range, 7 to 32 mg/dL]; creatinine, 4.3 mg/dL [reference range, 0.5 to 1.5 mg/dL]; phosphorus, 9.4 mg/dL [reference range, 2.2 to 7.9 mg/dL]). Urine was minimally concentrated (specific gravity, 1.018) with proteinuria (2+; scale, negative to 4+). Radiographs
Case Description—A 6-month-old female domestic shorthair cat was admitted for evaluation of intermittent clinical signs of hematuria and inappropriate urination for the past 2 months.
Clinical Findings—Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed a multilayered mass in the urinary bladder apex consistent with full-thickness invagination of the bladder wall.
Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory surgery was performed, and partial inversion of the urinary bladder was confirmed. The invaginated bladder apex was manually reduced, and partial cystectomy was performed to remove the invaginated section of bladder wall. Histologic findings were consistent with vascular congestion and edema secondary to partial invagination. Bacterial culture of a section of the bladder mucosa demonstrated concurrent bacterial urinary tract infection. Clinical signs resolved following surgical resection of the bladder apex and antimicrobial treatment for the concurrent urinary tract infection.
Clinical Relevance—Partial invagination of the urinary bladder should be considered in the differential diagnosis for cats with clinical signs of hematuria, stranguria, and inappropriate urination. A diagnosis may be made on the basis of detection of invaginated tissue in the bladder apex during abdominal ultrasonography.
A 4-year-old 43.5 kg (96-lb) castrated male Great Pyrenees was referred for evaluation of right pelvic limb lameness of approximately 3 months' duration. No history of trauma was documented. Orthopedic examination revealed a grade 2/5 lameness of the right pelvic limb at a walk. An audible click was appreciable on maximal flexion and extension of the right stifle joint, with palpable joint effusion both medial and lateral to the patellar ligament, decreased range of motion, and signs of pain when placing the right stifle joint through a range of motion. A cranial drawer sign was present on examination of
A healthy 3-year-old female Briard-Beagle crossbred dog was admitted to the Michigan State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for late pregnancy evaluation. The dog was 2 days past the estimated date of parturition and had no signs of labor during physical examination. The dog was part of a research breeding colony and had a history of 2 normal pregnancies that resulted in the birth of healthy puppies. During the ultrasonographic examination of the fetuses, 4 viable fetuses were detected, 1 of which had multiple abnormalities and a heartbeat that was slow and weak (approx 100 beats/min; Figure 1).
OBJECTIVE To compare ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) with standard ocular ultrasonography for detection of canine uveal cysts and to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver agreement for detection of uveal cysts with UBM.
SAMPLE 202 enucleated eyes from 101 dogs.
PROCEDURES 2 examiners examined 202 eyes by means of UBM (50 MHz) to identify uveal cysts. A board-certified radiologist then examined 98 of the 202 eyes by means of standard ocular ultrasonography (7- to 12-MHz linear transducer). Subsequently, 1 examiner dissected all 202 eyes under magnification from an operating microscope to definitively identify uveal cysts. Each examiner was masked to other examiners’ findings. Sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver agreement were calculated for detection of cysts by UBM.
RESULTS Cysts were detected by use of UBM in 55 of 202 (27%) eyes by one examiner and 29 of 202 (14%) eyes by the other. No cysts were detected in the 98 eyes examined with standard ocular ultrasonography. Dissection results revealed that cysts were present in 64 of 202 (32%) eyes, including 29 of 98 (30%) eyes examined by standard ocular ultrasonography. Mean sensitivity of UBM for cyst detection was 47%; mean specificity was 92%. Uveal cysts not identified with UBM were often small (mean diameter, 490 üm). Interobserver agreement was high (κP = 0.81).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE UBM was more effective than standard ocular ultrasonography for detection of uveal cysts in enucleated eyes. Small-diameter cysts were difficult to visualize even with UBM.
Case Description—An 8-year-old 12.2-kg (26.9-lb) spayed female American Cocker Spaniel was referred for evaluation of abdominal discomfort and a suspected intra-abdominal lipoma with possible invasion into the thorax.
Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed a tense abdomen, and the margins of a large abdominal mass could be appreciated. Abdominal imaging revealed a mass of fat opacity in the abdominal and thoracic cavities. Computed tomography with precontrast and postcontrast peritoneograms was used to determine whether the masses connected via a diaphragmatic defect.
Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory laparotomy revealed a retroperitoneal lipomatous mass that had focally invaded the hypaxial musculature and had extended across the dorsolateral aspect of the diaphragm via the lumbocostal trigone into the intrathoracic extrapleural space. Surgical resection required transdiaphragmatic thoracotomy. Histologic examination of excised tissue confirmed the preoperative diagnosis of a lipoma. The dog recovered from surgery with no complications and had no disease recurrence for at least 32 months after surgical resection.
Clinical Relevance—The defect of the lumbocostal trigone is also called the foramen of Bochdalek in humans, and it is recognized as a common location for congenital diaphragmatic hernia. A lumbocostal trigone hernia may be considered as a differential diagnosis for bicavitary masses in dogs, particularly in the absence of a history of trauma.
A 2-year-old 19.5-kg (43.5-lb) spayed female German Shepherd Dog was referred to a veterinary teaching hospital for evaluation of a neck mass and possible hip dysplasia. The dog had been bred in Oklahoma and raised in Kansas and Michigan.
Clinical and Clinicopathologic Findings
Physical examination revealed fleas, mild hyperthermia (39.4°C [103°F]), slight lameness of the right hind limb with signs of pain on extension of the hip joint, and multiple enlarged lymph nodes or masses in the left and right superficial cervical, popliteal, and inguinal areas. There was marked wear of canine, premolar, and molar teeth with extensive exposure
OBJECTIVE To develop a model of hip joint synovitis on the basis of intra-articular injection of a sodium urate suspension in dogs and to characterize associated gait changes.
ANIMALS 6 healthy adult dogs.
PROCEDURES Each dog was sedated, and synovitis was induced by injection of 1 mL of a sodium urate suspension (20 mg/mL) into the right hip joint under ultrasonographic guidance. Observational and instrumented gait analyses to determine temporospatial, kinetic, and kinematic variables were performed prior to and 4, 8, and 24 hours after sedation and synovitis induction.
RESULTS Injection of a sodium urate suspension into the hip joint of healthy dogs resulted in lameness of the ipsilateral pelvic limb as determined by observational and instrumented gait analyses. For all dogs, lameness was clinically detectable within 1.5 to 2 hours after injection, reached its maximum intensity at 4 hours after injection, and had subsided by 24 hours after injection.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that injection of a sodium urate suspension into the hip joint of healthy dogs reliably induced synovitis and signs of pain and lameness in the ipsilateral pelvic limb that lasted 24 hours. This model can be used in conjunction with instrumented gait analysis to provide information on gait changes associated with hip joint disease and might be useful for evaluating the efficacy of analgesics or other interventions for the treatment of hip joint disease in dogs.