Objective—To assess the perioperative and postoperative complications associated with use of vascular access ports (VAPs) in the jugular and lateral saphenous veins of dogs requiring frequent anesthetic episodes for radiation therapy.
Animals—40 dogs referred to a veterinary teaching hospital.
Procedures—VAPs were used in 23 dogs, and intravenous catheters inserted in a peripheral vein were used in 17 dogs. The frequency of perioperative and postoperative complications associated with VAP use and the frequency of infection associated with intravenous catheter use were recorded. Results of bacterial culture of VAP tips and amount of time required for VAP placement and removal and for anesthetic induction were also recorded.
Results—VAP-associated perioperative complications included malposition of the catheter tip in 4 of 23 (17.4%) dogs. The VAP-associated postoperative complications included seroma formation in 7 (30.4%) dogs, breakage of port-anchoring sutures in 3 (13.0%) dogs, suspected fatal catheter-related septicemia in 1 (4.3%) dog, and temporary partial withdrawal occlusion in 18 of 255 (7.1%) anesthetic episodes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Placement of VAPs provided ready access in dogs receiving radiation therapy. Most complications were minor and self-limiting; however, a low risk of serious complications existed. Use of fluoroscopy to assess position of the catheter tip is recommended to decrease the risk of malposition. Immediate removal of a VAP is recommended when clinical signs of infection develop. Removal of a VAP at the completion of radiation therapy should be performed unless the benefit of continued vascular access outweighs the risks.
Objective—To evaluate the expression of Ki67 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mitotic index (MI), and microvascular density (MVD) in feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) via immunohistochemical staining on archival tumor tissues and to seek a correlation between these markers and clinical variables.
Sample—22 archived tumor samples of feline oral SCC.
Procedures—Immunohistochemical staining for Ki67, MVD, and EGFR was performed and scored. Patient survival information was obtained from the medical records. These molecular markers as well as MI were correlated with tumor locations and patient survival time.
Results—The 22 tumors had wide variation in Ki67 expression, MI, MVD, and EGFR expression. Tongue SCC had higher MVD than did mandibular and maxillary SCC. Tumor expression of EGFR was inversely proportional to survival time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that EGFR expression might be a valuable prognostic factor for treatment outcome in feline oral SCC. It also identified higher angiogenesis in tongue SCC, compared with mandibular and maxillary SCC, which may account for a different clinical outcome. Further prospective characterization of feline oral SCC may provide a better understanding of the underlying molecular factors that drive its behavior and offer the possibility for future patient-specific treatment plans.
To describe clinical outcomes in cats with insulin resistance and acromegaly treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS).
14 client-owned cats.
Medical records of cats with insulin resistance and acromegaly treated with SRS (17 Gy) between August 2013 and November 2019 at a single institution were reviewed. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate overall survival time.
Acute adverse effects of SRS included somnolence (n = 2) and alopecia (1). Delayed adverse effects of SRS included unspecified neurologic complications (n = 1; 481 days), seizures (1; 1,541 days), and hypothyroidism (1; 64 days). Exogenous insulin requirements decreased in 10 of the 14 cats, with a median time to lowest insulin dose of 399 days (range, 42 to 879 days). Complete diabetic remission was achieved in 3 cats. The median overall survival time was 741 days (95% CI, 353 to 1,129 days). Six cats were still alive at the end of the study period, with a median follow-up time of 725 days. In 7 of the 8 cats that had died, death was presumptively attributed to acromegaly owing to continued insulin resistance, organ failure, or altered neurologic status.
The SRS protocol was well tolerated and associated with survival times similar to those reported previously. Most cats had decreased exogenous insulin requirements after SRS. Latency to an endocrine response was highly variable, emphasizing the need for careful ongoing diabetic monitoring of acromegalic cats after pituitary gland irradiation.