To evaluate changes in ground reaction forces (GRFs) in relation to gait velocity using 2 force plates (FPs) for healthy Beagles.
18 healthy Beagles were included (body weight, 10.45 ± 1.28 kg; age, 26 ± 11 months).
Ten GRF parameters were measured at three gait velocities (walk, 0.9 to 1.2 m/s; trot 1, 1.6 to 2.0 m/s; and trot 2, 2.1 to 2.5 m/s): peak lateral force (PLF), peak medial force (PMF), lateral impulse (LI), medial impulse (MI), peak propulsive force (PPF), peak braking force (PBF), propulsive impulse (PI), braking impulse (BI), peak vertical force (PVF), and vertical impulse (VI).
As velocity increased, the PVF of all limbs increased, the VI of all limbs decreased, and the PPF of the forelimbs increased. At all velocities, PBF and BI were significantly higher than the PPF and PI in forelimbs; however, PBF and BI were significantly lower than the PPF and PI in hindlimbs. There were no significant differences in the PLF, PMF, LI, and MI of the forelimbs and hindlimbs among all velocities. The PLF was significantly higher than the PMF of forelimbs during trot 1 and trot 2.
These results may be useful when comparing healthy Beagles with diseased ones when premorbid data are not available. Because the forelimbs are mainly responsible for the braking force, it is suggested that weight bearing is more stable in the forelimbs than in the hindlimbs, which are mainly responsible for the propulsive force, and that a greater force is generated laterally than medially during trot.
Procedure—Diets containing no carbohydrate source
(control diet), control plus starch, or control plus fiber
were given in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design. The diets
were available ad libitum in study 1 (n = 12) and given
under restrictions in study 2 (9) to equalize daily
intakes of crude protein among the 3 groups.
Formation of struvite crystals and balance of calcium,
phosphorus, and magnesium were measured.
Results—Urine volume was lower in the starch group
and fiber group in study 1, whereas no differences
were detected among the groups in study 2. Urinary
pH and struvite activity product were higher in the
starch group in both studies, and the fiber group also
had higher struvite activity product in study 2. In both
studies, urinary concentrations of HCl-insoluble sediment
were higher in the starch group and fiber group.
In the fiber group, a net loss of body calcium, phosphorus,
and magnesium was detected in study 2.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Starch and
fiber in diets potentially stimulate formation of struvite
crystals. Hence, reducing dietary carbohydrate is
desirable to prevent struvite urolith formation. In addition,
a net loss of body calcium, phosphorus, and
magnesium during feeding of the fiber diet suggests
that dietary inclusion of insoluble fiber could increase
macromineral requirements of cats. (Am J Vet Res